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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 - Detailed

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 13: Personality Disorders Personality disorder (PDs): a heterogeneous group of disorders that are coded on axis II of the DSM. They are regarded as long-standing, pervasive and inflexible patterns of behaviour and inner experience that deviate from the expectation of a persons culture and that impair social and occupational functioning (some but not all cause emotional distress) An actual personality disorder is defined by extremes of several traits and by the inflexible way these traits are expressed They are often rigid in their behaviour and cannot change it in response to changes in the situation they experience Individuals would not be diagnosed as having personality disorders unless the patterns of behaviour were long-standing, pervasive and dysfunctional Often co-morbid with axis I disorders Classifying Personality Disorders: Clusters, Categories and Problems The reliability of personality disorder diagnoses have improved because of 2 developments The publication of specific diagnostic criteria The development of structured interviews specially designed for assessing personality disorders Test-rests reliability is also an important factor for evaluation Anti-social personality disorder has a high test-retest reliability, indicating that it is a stable diagnosis The figured for schizotypal and dependent personality disorders are low There is an overall age-related decline over time in personality dysfunction as people get older It is often difficult to diagnose a single, specific personality disorder because many disordered people exhibit a wide range of traits that make several diagnoses applicable Personality disorders can be construed as the extremes of characteristics we all possess (Livesley, Schoroeder, Jackson and Jang) personality disorder is a failure or inability to come up with adaptive solutions to life tasks. Three types of life tasks: To form stable, integrated and coherent representation of self and others To develop the capacity for intimacy and positive affiliations with other people To function adaptively in society by engaging in prosocial and cooperative behaviours Assessing Personality disorders Many disorders are ego-syntonic, that is the person with a personality disorder is unaware that a problem exists and may not experience significant distress The disorders may need to be diagnosed via clinical interview led by trained professionals PDNOS is personality disorder not otherwise specified: they dont fit into existing personality disorder diagnostic categories (3rd most prevalent type) Although clinical interviews are preferable, researchers often rely on self-report measures when assessing personality disorder symptoms MMPI-2 has been created to assess the symptoms of specific personality disorders the PSY-5 consists of dimensions of assessing negative emotionalityneuroticism, lack of positive emotionality, aggressiveness, lack of constraint, and pychoticism The most widely used measure of personality disorder symptoms is the Millon www.notesolution.com
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