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Psychology (9,695)
PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 from textbook, covered in week 1 of FALL 2010 semester

14 Pages
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Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION SEPT. 13 .TH 2010 -psychopathology: concerned wthe nature & development of abnormal behaviour, thoughts, and feelings. -abnormal behaviour: includes such characteristics as statistical infrequence, violation of norms, personal distress, disability or dysfunction, and unexpectedness. -e.g. J. Brett Barkley depression & mania (alternating episodes) occurred in ~1% of pop. -Stat. Infreq.: described by the normal curve majority of the pop lies in the middle; used explicitly to diagnose mental retardation -sometimes infrequencies are not abnormal e.g. athletic strength -violation of norms: J.B.B. verbalphysical attacks on his wife; e.g. antisocial behav of a psychopathOCD patient; norms are different win diff cultures -personal distress: personal suffering; J.B.B. self-consciousnessdistress being evaluated. -e.g. psychopath has no distress of actions heshe has done -disability of dysfunction: J.B.B. disruption of marital relationship; impairment in area of life bc of abnormality -e.g. substance-use disorders are defined in part by the socialoccupational disability -a phobia can produce both distress and disability (e.g. fear of flying). -unexpectedness: distress and disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected responses to environmental stressors. -e.g. anxiety disorders anxiety is unexpected and out of proportion to the situation. -the major proportion of primary mental health care in Canada is delivered by general practioners. -obtain 5 competencies in order to become registered as a psychologist: (1) interpersonal relationships; (2) assessment and evaluation (including diagnosis); (3) intervention and consultation; (4) research; and (5) ethics and standards). HISTORY OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY -early demonology: doctrine that an evil being controls hisher mind and body; abnormal behave was caused by possession, its treatment involved exorcism (casting out of evil sprits by ritualistic chanting or torture) rendering the body uninhabitable. -trepanning of skulls (making surgical openings in the living skull) by Stone Age; creating an opening for the spirits to escape; or to relieve pressure from depressed fractures caused by war clubs. www.notesolution.com-somatogenesis: Hioppocrates was one of the first to separate medicine from religion, magic and superstition. -such illnesses had natural causes and should be treated like other illnesses. -somatogenesis notion that something wrong with the soma, or physical body, disturbs thought and action. -psychogenesis in contrast, believes that a disturbance has psychological origins. -Hippocrates classified mental disorders into 3 categories: mania, melancholia, and phrentits (brain fever). -normal brain functioningmental health dependent on the balance of 4 humours of the body: bloodblack bileyellow bilephlegm: imbalances produced disorders -sluggishdull = predominance of phlegm; melancholia = black bile; irritabilityanxiousness = yellow bile; temperament = blood -dark ages & demonology: death of Galen and the treatmentinvestigation of abnormal behaviour; the churches gained influence; replaced physicians with monks to care for the sick. -persecution of witches: Malleus Maleficarum (the witches hammer) to guide the witch hunts; accused of witchcraft were to be tortured if they did not confess to demonic possessions. -witchcraft and mental illness: psychotic; many of the accused were not mentally ill; the delusion-like confessions were obtained during brutal tortures. -witchcrafts was not the primary interpretation of mental illness. Hospitals also kept the mentally ill -lunacy trials began: defendants orientation, memory, intellect etc were at issue in trials. -strange have linked to physical illness or injury or to some emotional shock. -in all the cases, only one referred to demonological possession; mental disturbance was no as dominant in Middle Ages as one thought. -development of asylums; mental hospitals; confinement of the mentally ill began in the th th 15 16 Centuries; Leprosariums were converted to asylums (also took in beggars). -bedlam, a popular name for the St. Mary of Bethlehem for just the mentally ill; describes the placescene of wild uproar and confusion; became a tourist attraction. -Benjamin Rush, believe that mental disorder was caused by an XS of blood in the brain; believed that lunatics could be cured by being frightened. -moral treatment: Philippe Pinel mvmt for humanitarian treatment of the mentally ill in asylums; un-chained them and many became calm and much easier www.notesolution.com
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