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Chpt 26.docxC

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Amanda Uliaszek

Behaviour Analysis: Chapter 26 Rule-Governed and Verbal Behaviour: 1) Rule Governed Behaviour:  Rule: verbal statement of a contingency that involves antecedent, a behv, and a conseq o Ex of rule: 2 days before the test, if I don’t start reading, I’ll flunk  Flunking = neg consequence (punishment)  Behv: reading  2 ways rules are efficient: o Can respond in accordance w/ specified contingencies & avoid experiencing unpleasantness o React properly even though never experienced threatened conseq before (ex: take stairs in case of fire)  Rule-governed behv  action controlled by stated rule How Rules Govern Behaviour:  Rule= discriminative stim (antecedent)  Rules generally = verbal prompts  leads to + reinforcement if obeyed and punishment if not  Neg reinforcement involved in learning rules when rule elicits aversive emotion o Ex: doing readings reduces aversive emotion of anxiety When are Rule Especially Useful? :  Rules useful when: o formalized in a behv contract in self-management prog o Target behv’s consequences will be delayed (ex: clean room by sun afternoon and can watch fav tv show that night, if not, can’t watch) o Natural reinforcers for the targ behv doesn’t occur oft enough (ex: keeping store tidy even when not many customers b/c it will attract customers) o Rapid behavioural change is highly desirable:  Ex: passing course currently failing via ↑ desirable reinforcers  Sufficient verbal/lang skills req to use rules 2) Verbal Behaviour:  Verbal Behaviour: action that uses lang & results in conseq  Vocal or nonvocal (written, gestures, sign lang) Types of Verbal Behaviour:  Skinner identified 6  Focus on 2 earliest verbal behvs children dev (mands & tacts) Mands:  Mand: verbal behv requesting something speaker needs/wants  Request can vary (desire, demand) o Crying = unclear mand o Reaching arms & saying up = clear mand  Content determined by motivating operation (hunger, discomfort)  Receiving potatoes = + reinforcement  Noise ending = neg reinforcement Tacts:  Tact: verbal behv that names an item/event  Can be vocal/ nonvocal Other verbal behv:  Echoic – repeating/ copying  Intraverbal- answering q’ w/ words not included in q’  Textual- transla
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