Textbook Notes (369,205)
Canada (162,462)
Psychology (9,699)
PSYB45H3 (1,081)
Jessica Dere (593)
Chapter 17

PSYB45H3 Chapter 17: PSYB45 Chapter 17
Premium

5 Pages
71 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Jessica Dere

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Description
PSYB45: Behaviour Modification Clara Rebello PSYB45 Chapter 17 – Antecedent Control: Rules and Goals Antecedent Control  Because of behaviour of responding to various antecedent stimuli has been reinforced, punished, or extinguished, those stimuli exert control over our behaviour whenever they occur  Before designing a lengthy behaviour modification program with procedures like shaping  Ask: Can I capitalize on existing forms of stimulus control?”  Treatment packages that focus on the manipulation of antecedent stimuli (also called antecedents) fall into the categories of rules, goals, modeling, physical guidance, situational inducement, and motivation Rules  Rule: A situation in which a behaviour will lead to a consequence o A specific behaviour will “pay off” or have a bad outcome in a particular situation o As we grew up, we learned that following rules often led to rewards o A rule can function as an S  A cue that emitting the behaviour specified by the rule will lead to the reinforcer identified in the rule/A cue that not following the rule will lead to a punisher  Sometimes rules clearly identify reinforcers or punishers associated with the rules o In other cases, consequences are implied o Reinforcers are also implied for rules stated in the form of advice o Rules given in the form of a command/threat imply that noncompliance will be punished  Rules that don’t identify all 3 aspects of a contingency of reinforcement are referred to as partial rules o Some focus on behaviour o Others identify the antecedent while the behaviour and consequence are implied o Some identify the consequences while the antecedent and the behaviour are implied o Because of our learning experiences, partial rules also control our behaviour  Contingency-shaped vs. rule-governed behaviour o Contingency-shaped behaviour: Behaviour that develops because of its immediate consequences rather than because of a specific statement/rule PSYB45: Behaviour Modification Clara Rebello  Involves immediate consequences and is typically strengthened gradually through “trial and effort” (immediate reinforcement and nonreinforcement) o Rule-governed behaviour: Behaviour controlled by a statement of a rule  Often involves delayed consequences and frequently leads to immediate behaviour change  Often behaviour that might seem to be strengthened by the direct effects of reinforcement is also the result of rule-governed behaviour  Descriptive praise/behaviour-specific praise (“Good girl for cleaning your room”) is often recommended over general praise (“Good girl”)  When rules are especially helpful o When rapid behaviour change is desirable  Correct use of rules can often produce behaviour change much more rapidly than shaping, chaining, or trial and error o When consequences are delayed  By adding a rule, you can increase the chances of the delayed reinforcer having an effect on the desired behaviour o When natural reinforcers are highly intermittent o When behaviour will lead to immediate and severe punishment  Rules can help people learn appropriate behaviour when learning “the hard way” could be costly  Why rules control our behaviour/why we follow rules that identify very delayed consequences o Although the reinforcer identified in a rule might be delayed for an individual, other people might provide other immediate consequences if the individual follows/doesn’t follow the rule o An individual might follow a rule and then immediately make reinforcing statements  Failure to comply with a rule might lead to immediate self-punishment o Our operant-respondent interactions give us a reinforcement history so that following rules is automatically strengthened and failure to follow rules is automatically punished  Whether automatic consequences will continue to influence your rule following will depend on the extent to which you continue to experience punishment for noncompliance with rules PSYB45: Behaviour Modification Clara Rebello o Exceptions to this generalization (the reasons above)  Rules introduce extra stimuli and responses that, in some circumstances, can have the net effect of interfering with contingency-shaped behaviour  Five conditions that affect the likelihood of rule-following behaviour o Specific vs. vague descriptions of behaviour  A rule that describes behaviour specifically is more likely to be followed than one that describes a behaviour vaguely o Specific vs. vague descriptions of circumstances  A rule that describes specific circumstances in which the behaviour should occur is more likely to be followed than a rule that describes the circumstances vaguely or not at all o Probable vs. improbable consequences  Rules are likely to be followed if they
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit