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Chapter 20

Chapter 20: Behavioral Assessment: Initial Considerations

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Jessica Dere
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 20: Behavioural assessment: initial considerations Behavioural assessment: the collection and analysis of information and data to (a) ID and describe target b; (b) ID the causes of the b; (c) select appropriate treatment strategies to mod the b; and (d) evaluate treatment outcome Minimal phases of a program – usually 4 phases: 1) Screening or intake phase: initial client-practitioner interaction where client typically completes intake form (name, address DOB, marital stat etc). 5 functions: a) Determine if an agency of bmodifier is the right to one deal w/ the potential client’s behaviour. If not, recommend the right one. b) Inform the client about the agencies/practitioner’s service provision’s policies and procedures c) Screens for crisis condition (child abuse, suicide risk, etc) that req. immediate intervention. d) To get sufficient info through client interview an psych tests to diagnose the client according to standardized categories of mental disorders (i.e DSMIVTR) i) For example, an insurance company may need a diagnosis before paying for the treatment. e) Give specific info about the target behaviour(s). This is done by use info gathered from above and I-data, tests, and assessment devices. 2) Preprogram assessment phase: (1) assessment of target b to determine its level prior to the introduction of the program/treatment and (2) analysis of the client’s current environment to ID possible controlling variables of the target B. a) A baseline of the target b is required in order to see if the program/treatment is actually working 3) Treatment phase: In educational settings = training/teaching program; In clinical settings = intervention strategy or therapy program in. a) After preprogram assessment, practitioner designs a program to change the target b into desired b. b) Frequent observation and monitoring of target b occurs i) Traditional educational practices use periodic assessment during teaching program to monitor student’s performance ii) Clinical treatments use client assessments at various intervals c) Emphasis on behaviour monitoring and changing the program if the measurements taken indicate the target b is not changing within a reasonable period of time. 4) Follow-up phase: determines if the improvements achieved during the treatment are maintained after the program has ended. a) If possible, consists of precise obs/assessment in the natural environment or under circumstances in which the b is expected to occur. Sources of Information for Preprogram Assessment – 3 categories: indirect, direct, and experimental. Indirect assessment Procedures: indirectly observing target behaviour when direct observation is impractical. Common procedures: 1. Interviews w/ clients and significant others  describes the types of problem he/she works with;  asks about client’s background or give a simple demographic referral form;  has client describe what the problem is (ref. Table 20-1)  keep a welcoming environment to keep client at ease and to gain info on the problem  try to make and maintain a relationship w/ client and significant others  done by being attentive to client’s problem description  not expressing personal values that will influence the client  showing empathy by showing an understanding of their feelings  emphasizing client-therapist confidentiality  B-therapists tend to focus discussion on the specific problematic behaviour by asking questions about it and its controlling variables  Therapist will then:  Help client ID major problem areas  Select 1-2 problem areas for treatment focus  Translate the problem into specific b deficits or excesses  ID controlling V(s) of problem b  ID some specific b objectives for treatment 2. Questionnaires- some popular ones among b-therapists are:  Life history questionnaires: gives demographic data (e.g. marital status) and background data (e.g. sexual, health, ed. Histories). E.G The Multimodal Life History Inventory  Self-report problem checklist: Client checkmarks all the problem which applies to them.  Eg) Behavioural self-rating checklist . examples (20-1)  What seems to be the problem?  Can you describe what you typically say or do when you experience the prob?  How often does the prob occur?  For how long has the prob been occurring?  In what situations does it occur? What sets it off?  What tends to occur immediately after you experience the prob?  What are you typically thinking and feeling when the problem occurs?  How have you tried to deal with the problem thus far?  Survey schedules: gives therapist info needed to conduct a therapeutic technique w/ a client  Eg) Fig. 3-3 gives info useful in applying positive reinforcement procedures  Third-party behavioural checklists or rating scales: informants subjectively assess the f and quality of certain client behaviours.  Eg) objective behavioural assessment of the severely and moderately mentally handicapped: The OBA  Lets 3 -party informants’ rate if the client can do a variety of tasks. 3. Roleplaying: recreating a situation so the target b can be observable if its unfeasible to do so in the actual situation it occurs in.  Client and therapist enact interpersonal interactions related to the client’s problem  Used in assessing and treating a problem 4. Info from consulting professionals  If other professionals have dealt w/ the client in any way related to the problem, the therapist should get relevant info from them.  Their problem might be medically related so info from a physician can help but only if the client allows this information to be shared 5. Client self-monitoring: direct observation by the client of their own b  It is indirect because the therapist doesn’t directly observe the behaviour  Except for covert behaviour, behaviours that might be self-monitored are the same as those that a trained observer would observe directly  Can help discover the causes of a problem behaviour  PRO: conven
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