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Chapter 3

PSYB45 Chapter 3

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Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 3 Graphing Behaviour and Measuring Change A graph: is the visual representation of the occurrence of a behaviour over time Components of a graph  The axis: Y-axis (ordinate) and x-axis (abscissa) . X-axis is one to two times longer  Labels: Y-axis tells you the behaviour that is being recorded (e.g hours of studying) while the x- axis tells you the unit of time in which the behaviour was recorded (e.g the days)  Numbers: numbers on y-axis tells you the unit of measurement of the behaviour while the number of x-axis tells you the units of measurement of time  Data points: plotted on the graph and connected by a line  Phase lines: a vertical line on a graph that indicates a change in treatment, separates baseline (no treatment) from treatment and is usually dotes line. Note that: data points are not connected across phase lines  Phase labels: baseline and treatment label (e.g behavioural contract to increase studying ), and the least number of phase labels is 2 What is the purpose of a research design in behaviour modification? o To determine whether the treatment (independent) variable was responsible for the observed change in the target behaviour (dependant variable) and to rule out the possibility that extraneous variables(confounding variable) caused the behaviour to change. o To demonstrate a functional relationship between the procedure and the target behaviour, meaning that the behaviour has changed as a function of the procedure How does the researcher establish a functional relationship between the target behaviour and the procedure? a) Target behaviour changes when an independent variable is manipulated while keeping all other variables constant(treatment) b) The process is repeated more than one time and the behaviour changes each time(replication) Types of research designs A-B design  Simplest design, has only two phases: A-baseline and B-treatment  Does not demonstrate a functional relationship since treatment is not replicated  It is not a true research design since it doesn’t rule out the possibility that an extraneous variable was responsible for the behaviour change  Rarely used by behaviour modification researchers  Often used in applied and no research situations  E.g, self management procedure A-B-A-B Reversal Design  Base line and treatment phases are implemented twice  Called reversal since after the first phase, the researcher removes the treatment and goes back to baseline  It demonstrates a functional relationship between the procedure and target behaviour (procedure caused the target behaviour to change)  Unlikely that an extraneous variable caused the behaviour to change  If B treatment did not work then you move on to implement treatment C and when you do the reversal you will go on like this: A-B-C-A-C  Must take into account that it may not be ethical to remove the treatment in the second baseline esp i
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