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Chapter 15

Chapter 15 txtbook notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 15: Differential Reinforcement Involves applying reinforcement & extinction to increase the desirable target behaviour or decrease undesirable behaviour 3 types: differential reinforcement of alternative behaviour , differential reinforcement of other behaviour & differential reinforcement of low rates of responding Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviour (DRA) Used to increase the frequency of desirable behaviour & to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviours involves the combining 2 principles: reinforcement for a desirable behaviour & extinction of undesirable behaviour at the same time Getting Mrs. Williams to Be Positive Mrs. Williams in nursing home always complaining to nurse & it gotten worsen over time initially she was nice, & polite Used DRA: Nurse were instructed to do 3 things:1say something positive when nd rd they see her 2 if she saying something positive back pay attention to her 3 if she say something negative dont pay attention to her o in time complaining behaviour decreased & positive behaviour increased DRA by decreasing the interfering behaviour through extinction , it creates opportunity for the desirable behaviour to occur & be reinforced When to Use DRA To determine whether DRA is appropriat e answer 3 question: o Do you want to increase the rate of desirable behaviour? DRA is for strengthening a desirable behaviour o Is the behaviour already occurring at least occasionally? The desirable behaviour must occur at least occasionally in order for DRA to work but if using procedure such as shaping or prompting are used initially to evoke the behaviou r then DRA may be used to strengthen & maintain the behaviour o Do you have access to a reinforcer that you can deliver after the occurrence of the behaviour? Must be able to identify a reinforcer that you can use each time Cannot identify a reinforcer or have no control over a reinfo rcearnnot use DRA How to Use DRA Steps: 1. Define the Desirable Behaviour must clearly identify & define (behavioural definition) the desirable behaviour that is to be increased w DRA - to ensure that correct behaviour is reinforced & to record it to determine if treatment is successful www.notesolution.com
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