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PSYB45H3 (1,056)
Chapter 12


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

CH.12 Behavioral Skills Training Procedures - BST-4 typessuch asmodeling,instructions,rehearsal,and feedback whicharegenerally used together intrainingsessionstohelpaperson acquireusefulskills(suchassocialskills or job-related skills). Typically used toteachskills thatcan besimulated inaroleplay context. Components of the Behavioral SkillsTrainingProcedure -Modeling: the correct behavior isdemonstratedfor thelearner.Thelearner observesthe model’sbehavior then imitatesthe model.Formodelingtobeeffective,thelearnermusthave an imitative repertoire; the learner hastobeabletopayattentiontothemodeland perform the behavior that the model just demonstrated. Model’sbehavior becomesan sDfor imitation,and limitation becomesageneralized response classwhich meansthatimitation islikelytooccur inthefuturewhen a behavior ismodeled forthe learner Live modeling,another persondemonstratestheappropriate behaviorinthe appropriate situation.Symbolic modeling,correct behaviorisdemonstrated on videotape,audiotape,or possiblyinacartoon ormovie. Researchersfoundthat the children whoreceived themodeling,instructions, rehearsal,and feedbacklearned theabductionpreventionskillsbetterthan the children who got instructionsand modelingfromthevideotapewithout thechanceforrehearsal and feedback Factors that Influencethe EffectivenessofModeling:modelexhibitingthecorrect behavior should result in a successfuloutcome; modelshould resemblepeople observing the model or should havehighstatus; complexityofthemodel’sbehavior should be appropriate tothe developmentalor abilitylevelofthelearner;learner hasto payattention;the modeled behaviormustoccur in theproper context; themodel behavior should be repeated asoften asnecessaryfor thelearner toimitate itcorrectly; behavior should be modeled inavarietyofwaysand in avarietyofsituationsto enhance generalization;and learner should havean opportunitytorehearsethe behavior after observingthe modeland correct imitationofthemodeledbehavior should be reinforced immediately -Instructions: it describesthe appropriate behaviorforthelearner.It should bespecificand should also specify the appropriate circumstancesinwhichthelearner isexpected toengagein the behavior. Factors influence effectivenessofInstructions:instructionsshould bepresented at a level that the learner canunderstand,should bedelivered bysomeonewhohas credibility with the learner,learner should haveopportunitytorehearsethebehavior asap after rcvng instructions,instructionsshould bepaired withmodelingwhenever observing the behaviorwillenhancethepotentialfor learningthebehavior,instructions only given when learnerispayingattention,learner should repeat instructionsso teacher can be certain the learner heard instructionsclearly -Rehearsal: The opportunity for the learner topracticethebehaviorafter rcvinginstructions or watching a model demonstrating thebehavior.  Factors influencing effectivenessofrehearsalaspart ofBST procedure:thebehavior should be rehearsed in the proper context,rehearsalshould beprogrammed for successso learnersstart practicingwith easy situationsfirst, rehearsalofthecorrectbehaviorshould alwaysbe followed immediately byreinforcement,rehearsalsshould befollowed bycorrective feedback,andbehaviorshould be rehearsed untilit isdemonstrated correctlyat least afew time. -Feedback: should be given followingthelearner’srehearsalofthebehavior,learner should be given immediate feedback.It involvespraiseor other reinforcersfor correct performance. When necessary,it mayalso involve correctionoferrorsorfurther instructioninhowto improve performance. Feedback should be given immediatelyafterthe behavior,should alwaysinvolve praise (or other reinforcers) for some aspect ofthebehavior,praiseshould bedescriptive (describe what the learner said anddidthatwasgood.Focusonallaspectsofthebehavior, verbal andnonverbal),don’t be negativewhen providingcorrectivefeedback (don’tdescribe the learner’sperformance as bad or wrongbut rather provide instruction thatidentifywhatthe learner could do better or how the learner could improvetheperformance),alwayspraise some aspect of the performancebeforeprovidingcorrectivefeedback,and provide corrective feedback on one aspectof the performance at atimeeven iftherewerealot ofincorrect thingsso the learner doesn’t feel overwhelmed ordiscouraged) Enhancing Generalization after BehavioralSkillsTraining - Training should involve a variety ofroleplaysthatstimulate theactualsituation, incorporatereal life situationsintotraining,provide assignments for the learner to practice the skill being learned outside theBST session in areallife situation,andthe trainer can arrangefor reinforcement of the skillsinsituationsoutsidethetraining sessions In Situ Assessment - In situ Assessment: When an assessment ofskillsoccursinthenaturalenvironment where the skil
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