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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 - Perceiving Objects and Recognizing Patterns

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Gabriela Ilie

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Memory & Cognition Chapter 3 Perceiving Objects & Recognizing Patterns Perception Interpreting sensory input meaningfully. Subdivided into: 1. Visual perception 2. Auditory perception 3. Olfactory perception 4. Haptic perception (touch) 5. Gustatory perception (taste) James Gibson: you immediately acquire specific information about an object upon inspection, including its location, shape, texture, size, name, and its function. Classical Approach to Perception An objects is a distal stimulus Receive information of distal stimuli through sensory systems; the reception is the proximal stimulus The interpretation of the proximal stimulus is the percept Size Constancy The phenomenon that ones perception of an object remains constant even as the retinal image of the object changes size (an object moving closer or further from the observer) Pattern Recognition Recognition of a particular object, event, etc., as belong to a class of objects, events, etc. Gestalt Approaches to Perception Form Perception: segregation of the whole display into objects (figure) and the background (ground), eg. Reversible figures optical illusions. Figure is seen as having a definite shape and is better remembered than the ground which is seen as shapeless, less formed, and farther away in space Subjective Contours: aka. Illusory contours; complex displays are subject to a simplifying interpretation without the perceiver being aware of it (the non-existent triangle) Perception isnt entirely determined by the stimulus display; requires perceivers active participation Perceivers follow certain lawsprinciples of organization in coming to interpretations First assert that the whole, or Gestalt, is not the same as the sum of its parts; recognize objects as a whole instead of identifying its individual features Gestalt Principles of Perceptual Organization 1. Principle of Proximity (nearness) o Group together objects that are closer to each other 2. Principle of Similarity o Group together objects with similar elements 3. Principle of Good Continuation www.notesolution.com
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