Textbook Notes (368,784)
Canada (162,164)
Psychology (9,697)
PSYB57H3 (366)
George Cree (102)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Visual Knowledge Textbook Notes

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George Cree

Chapter 11visual knowledge People describe their thoughts in a variety of ways 1 in words 2 in an abstract forma sequence of ideas that lacks any concrete form and 3 in a sequence of pictures or sounds or other sensory impressionsVisual ImageryHow many windows are there in your house You call to mind a map of your house and count the windows by inspecting this mapMany people even trace the map in the air by moving their finger around following the imagined maps contours Introspection About ImagesAmong the earliest imagery researcher was Francis Galtonhe asked various people to describe their images and to rate them for vividnessHe asked subjects to introspect or look within and to report the mental contents Subjects reported that they could inspect their images much as they would inspect a picture In their images scenes were represented as if viewed from a certain positiona certain distanceThey also reported that they could read off from the image details of colourtexture this is consistent with the informal way of describing mental images as pictures in the head to be inspected with the minds eyeMany described images of photographic clarity and rich in detail other reported very sketchy images or no images at allthey were able to think about the scenes or objects but cannot see themDo individuals differ in the nature of their mental imagery These selfreports shouldnt be taken at face value Perhaps all of his subjects had the same imagery skill but some were cautious in how they chose to describe their imagery while others were more extravagantGaltons data might reveal differences in how people talk about their imagery rather than differences in the imagery per seChronometric Studies of ImageryTo gain more objective data experimenters ask people to do something with their imagesto read information off of them or to manipulate them in some wayChronometric study timemeasuring study a study that measures how accurate and how fast people are in their responsesChronometric studies gives us an accurate portrait of mental imagery than a selfreport Chronometric studies allow us to ask what sorts of information are prominent in a mental image and what sorts are not we can then use these evaluations as a basis for asking how picturelike mental images are What information is includedwhat information is prominent depends on the mode of the presentation 1 Descriptionthe features that are prominent will be those that are distinctive and strongly associated with the object o When asked to write a description of a cat we are likely to mention the distinctive features of catswhiskers claws and so on o We will not include the fact that cats have heads because it is too obvious 2 Depictiondistinctiveness and association wont matter size and position will determine what is prominent and what is noto When asked to draw sketch of cat the cats head would be prominent because the head is relatively large and up fronto Claws and whispers might be less salient because these features are small and would not take up much space in the drawing Selfreports about imagery indicate a picturelike depiction representationPeople have the option of thinking about cats via imagery and also the option of thinking about cats without imagery as the mode of representation changes so does the pattern of information availabilityo Subjects first memorized this map including the variouslandmarks the hut the well the patch of grass and so on o Subjects were asked to form an image of the island and topoint their minds eye at a specific landmark the huto Another landmark the well was then mentioned o Subjects were asked to imagine a black speck moving in astndstraight line from the 1 landmark to the 2 ndo When the speck reached the 2 landmark subjects pressing a button stopping a clocko This provides a measure of how long it takes to scan fromthe hut to the wello Scanning times for each of the various pairs oflandmarks were recordedThere is a clear relationship between travel time and traveldistance This experiment is an example of an imagescanning procedure
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