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B64-ch 3.docx

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Janelle Leboutillier

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FuguJapanese puffer fishtetrodotoxin TTX toxin found in the puffer fishblocks the formation and transmission of action potentials within nerve cellsblocks movement of sodium ions across cell membrane which make signaling impossible without signals from nervous system lungs and other organs dont work Neurons and Gliathe nervous system is made up of 2 types of cells neurons and glianeuronscell of the nervous system specialized for information processing and communicationgliagreek word for gluesupport functions for the neurons1050 glia for every neuron in human bodyThe Structure of Neuronssimilarities to other cellshave membranesnucleiorganelles small structures in cell that carry out specific functionsdifferencehave specialized branches extending from cell bodyaxonsbranch of neuron that carries signals to other neurons outgoingdendritesbranch of neuron that receives info from other neurons incomingcell bodysomamain mass of neuron contains nucleus and other organellesNeuron Membranes cell membranes made to maintain difference in chemcial composition of intracellular inside cell and extracellular outside the cell fluidneural membrane made up of double layer of phospholipidsfatty molecules does not dissolve in watersince water and oil do not mix the membrane is able to keep fluids on both sides separatepermeabilitythe extent to which other substances can pass through it2 primary types of protien structure in neuron that allow ions elecrically charged particle to move in or out of neuronion channelsprotein structure in a cell membraneallows ions to pass through itpassive does not require additional energyion pumpsprotein structureuses energy to move ions across cell membraneable to open and close in response to stimulivoltagedependent channelsion channel that opens or closes in response to the local electrical environment ligandgated channelsion channel that opens when it comes into contact with specific chemicals can be naturally occurring or artificial ie drugshow do ion channels and pumps determine which ion channels are able to passthrough the amino acids that make up the ion channelspumpsthrough the membrane2 most important pumpssodiumpotassium pumpshelp maintain differences in chemical composition of intra and extraprisoner exchangesend 3 sodium ions outcollect 2 potassium ionscomes at high cost to neuron2040 of energy required to run the brain is used to run sodiumpotassium pumps calcium pumpssimilar functiondifference they do not exchange dont get anything back for pumping out calciumessential to maintain low levels of calcium in ceell neurotransmittersmessenger that transfer info across synapseNeural Cytoskeletoncytoskeleton3 filaments that provide structural support for the neuron 3 filaments function move elements within cell anchor channel and receptor protiens in appropriate places on membranemicrotubuleslargest of the fibers25 nmresponsible for movement of various materials within the
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