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Canada (161,892)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB65H3 (479)
Ted Petit (185)
Chapter 13

Chapter 13: Neural Development and Developmental Disorders

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Ted Petit

Chapter 13 Neural Development and Developmental Disorders Module 131 Neural Development Early DevelopmentNeural Plate neural plate formed from ectoderm on dorsal surface of embryo that becomes nervous system o Pluripotent stem cells have the potential to turn into different types of nervoussystem cells Neural tube day 24 fusing of neural plate different sections become different parts of system interior surface becomes ventricles and central canal of spinal cordProliferation months 35 rapid division of cells of the neural tube within the ventricular zoneDay 40 three bumps on anterior portion of neural tube forebrain midbrain and hindbrain Inside part develops first then moves outward in waves of proliferation and migration guided by glia as well as growth of axons and dendritesMonth 2 telencephalon goes through lots of growth developing cortical plate Adverse events genetic or chromosomal abnormalities or intrauterine trauma or exposure to toxins Craniorachischisis neural tube fails to close 11000 live birthsSpina bifida incomplete closing of posterior neural tube locomotive problems Anencephaly incomplete closing of anterior neural tube absence of cerebral hemispheres diencephalons and midbrain fatalsynaptogenesis and dendritic branching by 7th month when migration and differentiation is done producing more synapses and dendrites then needed in adult brain o Synaptogenesis occurs rapidly from after birth to 2 years then reduces o Maximal rate of reduction at pubertyApoptosis programmed cell death 50 of neurons in developing required in adult brain incorrect or unmade connections diePostnatal DevelopmentEmergence of behaviours in babies liking to large growth in cortical areas increases 4x in volume y Plastic change ability of CNS to alter itself in response to environmental stimuli y Critical periods of plastic change in which the environment can have a maximal effect on the CNSy Experience expectant plastic changes CNS changes that are dependent on experiences during ycritical period for specific synapses to develop ex Sensory cortexExperience dependant plastic changesidiosyncratic experiences that occur during critical periods ythat also affect brain development ex Learning of an instrument and auditory cortex Neurotrophins chemicals secreted by the brain that enhance the survival of neurons play critical yrole in plastic change White matter increases until about 20 years oldyParietal Lobe DevelopmentInconsistent levels of development at birth some parts more mature that others ex Somatosensory ydeveloped but visual perception and spatial ability take longer 23 months to 23 years large increase in glucose usage related to visuospatial and yvisuosensorimotor skillComplex tactile discriminations require more time to develop until 812 years and integration of ysensory systems with other systems Dorsal visual stream processing spatial info and directing behaviour adult level by 4 years y
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