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PSYB65H3 (479)
Ted Petit (185)
Chapter 7

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Ted Petit

Chapter 7 [MEMORY] Module 7.1: Types of Memories Memories Permanent and erasable Have limited and unlimited capacity Conscious and unconscious Has a duration limited to only a few seconds or lasting a life time There are a variety of memory systems that are subserved by a number of different neural systems within the brain What is Memory? Learning a relatively permanent change in behaviour as a function of experience Typically demonstrated by having an organism demonstrate a change in behaviour as a result of experience or showing that the organism recalls or remembers these experiences and changes its behaviour accordingly Learning and Memory = experience-dependent behaviour Division between learning and memory: Learning is concerned with attending to the information (encoding) and storing it for later use (consolidation) Memory is concerned with retrieving the information from where it was stored (retrieval) in the brain Memory is not a unitary phenomenon Sensory Memory and Short-Term Memory Memory requires information that is gathered by the senses to be perceived and encoded Iconic Memories sensory memories that are visually-based Echoic Memories sensory memories that are sound-based Iconic Memory Iconic memory studies are based on use of tachistoscope which permits stimuli to be presented for extremely short periods of time When participants were shown a set of letters (3 rows of 4 letters) for 50 ms o Asked to name all the letters remembered about 3-412 letters o Asked to name letters from a specific row remembered 3-4 letters of the specific row Explanation: participants can direct their remembering to a particular line of information; participants can remember specific features of visual information for a short period of time and were reading their response from a rapidly decaying visual trace www.notesolution.com Chapter 7 [MEMORY] Delays between viewing letter array and reporting letters o Delays of approx. 500ms resulted in the largest decrease in iconic memory When bright light follows the letter array immediately, it appears as if the bright light erases the letter trace, as participants cannot remember the usually 3-4 letters from the array o Suggests that iconic memory is very fragile and heavily reliant on peripheral stimuli Letters are transferred to a more durable format in order for them to be able to be recalled a short time later Ionic memory: color, motion, shape Two sides of the brain function equally well in iconic memory Echoic memory Very fragile and temporary memory store Echoic memory studies participants are typically presented with a series of brief tones and asked to indicate when they hear a second tone Loudness of second tone is manipulated When second tone immediately followed first tone, noise has to be very loud to be detected When second tone followed first tone after a long delay, the detected noise can be much quieter Echoic memory trace is much stronger immediately after the perception of a sound Short-term memory holds information for periods beyond what can be stored by sensory memory, although like sensory traces, is not permanent Sensory memory is rapidly converted to a more durable form of memory (short-term memory) Can be in any sensory modality visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, olfactory Short-term visual memory a form of visual memory that differs from iconic memory and is responsible for holding relevant visual information for slightly longer periods of time than iconic memory Short-term auditory memory a form of auditory memory that differs from echoic memory and is responsible for holding relevant auditory information for slightly longer periods of time than echoic memory In presentation of different speech to both ears, one in which presents a number in which that speech is to be ignored Performance was best when the interval between the number and the request from the experimenter was short (less than 5s) Performance was poorest when the interval was quite long (more than 5s) www.notesolution.com
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