Textbook Notes (363,236)
Canada (158,278)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYC12H3 (294)
Chapter 1

Chapter One: Introduction to the Study of Stereotyping and Prejudice

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

C12: Prejudice Chapter One: Introduction to the Study of Stereotyping and Prejudice Membership in a group can be restricted on the basis of special skills, family relations, gender, power, and a host of other factors. Through specialization of skills and the order within the society imposed by the power certain groups are given over the larger society (eg government), people found that they could live longer, happier, and more fulfilling lives than if people were each to fend for themselves or only for their own group. Some researchers theorize that the tendency to form groups is such a basic part of the nature of animals, including humans, and has conveyed survival benefits so successfully that it has (e.g. fighting off predators, raising offspring successfully) withstood time and evolution. Disadvantages and complications that group life brings: o Mate competition o Mate retention o Tend to form closer ties to members of their ingroup over outgroups to which they do not belong this forms the basis for negative feels about other groups (prejudice, stereotypes) Some believe that prejudice and stereotyping are no longer a problem in the US, however, while it is the case that overt expressions of racial prejudice and intergroup hatred have declined dramatically, they have by no means disappeared. DEFINING STEREOTYPING Lippmanns Stereotype The word stereotype originally derives from a term to describe a printing process in which fixed casts of material are reproduced. When journalist Walter Lipmann used the word stereotype to describe the tendency of people to think of someonesomething in similar terms that is, as having similar attributes based on a common feature shared by eat. o pictures in our heads o he wrote, we pick out what our culture has already defined for us, and we tend to perceive that which we have picked out in the form stereotyped for us by out culture. Stereotyping: From Bad to Neutral Researchers soon began to regard stereotyping as a very negative, lazy way of perceiving social groups; in other words, stereotyping was seen as an outward indicator of irrational, nonanalytic cognition. Allport defined a stereotype by writing that a stereotype is an exaggerated belief associated with a category o Other researchers presaged the social-cognition revolution movement in social psychology in that they argued that stereotyping ought to be examined as a normal psychological process. The Social Cognitive Definition 1 www.notesolution.com
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