Textbook Notes (368,566)
Canada (161,966)
Psychology (9,696)
PSYC12H3 (298)
Chapter 3


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Michael Inzlicht

-major benefit of cognitive approach to stereotyping has been demonstration of the imp influence of expectations abt social groups on social judgments and attitudes and behaviour toward outgroups -toward end of 1980s researchers began to look at the influence of affect on cognitive processes –nature and structure of emotion -traditionally, emotions were thoughts to contribute importantly to the development and endurance of stereotypes >intense emotions guide the thoughts and actions of ppl in intergroup contexts >affect plays a major role in the way that info abt social groups group members is processed—also influences the accessibility of constructs in memory and thus may determine which of many social represnetations are primed and which characeteristics in a given representation become activated; also inflence the textent to which the individual exerts info processing effort; also becomes assoc'd w social-group labels thru learning processes -when affect and physiological arousal are assoc'd w group members, they will influence how info abt the outgroup member is interpreted, how the perceiver repsonds to the outgroup member and whether the perceiver tends to interact w members of the target group in the future Types of IntergroupAffect -two ways of specifying the nature of affect in intergroup context: (Bodenhausen 1993)-incidental affect: affect elicited by situations unrelated to the intergroup context; integral affect: affect that is elicited w/in the intergroup context and involves the stereotyped outgroup; also arise from merely thinking about the outgroup >useful to make further distinction regarding integral affect—it is reasonable to suggest that ind's should have a rather stable feeling toward the outgroup as a whole, which may be termed chronic outgroup affect ; in addition, ppl also have affective reaction w/in an interaction w specific outgroup member—termed episodic outgroup affect Chronic OutgroupAffect -attitudes have traditionally been viewed as stable, enduring evaluations of an attitude object—anything about which one forms an attitude -in “The Nature of Prejudice”, Allport defined stereotype as “a fixed idea that accompanies a category” >bc any attitude (or evaluation of the attitude object) has incorporated w/in it both a cognitive and affective component, each time the attitude object is perceived or rmbrd, the evaluation will trigger belieds and other info assoc'd w the object, as well as enduring feelings—process holds when for enduring intergroup attitudes --> the affect that one feels toward the outgroup, as a result of one's enduring attitude toward the outgroup can be termed chronic outgroup affect -aversive racism: phrase used to describe the prejudice towardAfricanAmericans that characterizes many WhiteAmericans' attitudes—they believe they are truly egalitarian and regard themselves as nonprejudiced however they possess negative feelings about them and do in a subtle, easily rationalizable fashion but may express negative attitudes twoard them yet feel no affective consequences from doing thereby preserving the self from conflict-relative negative affect >can be due to differences in physical appearance >multiple effects of mere categorization of ppl into in/out-groups has biasing effects for perceiver on perception + evaluation of ppl—ppl in the ingroup are (1) assumed to be more similar in beliefs; (2) evaluated more favourably; (3) the recipients of more positive behavior by the perceiver than are members of outgroups and (4) found to be more attractive by the perceiver >social + cultural factors contribute too -when a situation threatens to make negative feelings salient, low prejudiced inds try to dissociate themselves from these feelings and often act more positively in ways that will convince them and others that they are not prejudiced -the particular negative affective state that has been investigated the most is anxiety, bc it is commonly experienced by ind's in an intergroup interaction >Stephen & Stephen developed a theoretical model of intergroup anxiety: in this model, anxiety has a disruptive effect on the behaviours, thoughts, and feelings of the outgroup member and perceiver. This anxiety can lso lead to increased stereotyping by the perceiver, and avoidance of future intergroup interaction, and attempts by the perceiver to control others >Stephen and Stephen claim the amount and conditions of intergroup contact are crucial determinants in whether the ind will experience anxiety prior to, or during, interactions w the outgroup—w minimal contact &/or the contact has been characterized by conflict, the ind will tend to feel more anxiety prior to or during intergroup interaction -imp determinant of type of chronic racial affect perceiver feels is the degree to which the outgroup member is culturall dissimilar from themselves >in D
ijkers study, he identified 4 emotions that strongly were related to ethnic attitudes: positive mood, anxiety, irritation, and concern -in sum, there appears to be a solid empirical basis for the notion that the intergroup context brings w it an emotional component for the interactants, and that factors such as proximity and degree of personal contact in intergroup context, physical and personality characteristics of outgroup members and cultural similarities of outgroup to the perceivers ehtnic group tends to influence the strength and valence of emotion felt Episodic Outgroup Affect -one;s intergroup-related affect can be a result of a specific interaction w a specific member of the outgroup -can also result from imagined interaction w an ind from the outgroup -can have a strong impact on an inds chronic, enduring outgroup affect IncidentalAffect -feelings that have no origination assoc'd w the outgroup can be characterized as incidental affect -affect in one context can influence social judgments in another context >can subsequently influence an ind's proclivity to use stereotypes in social judgment – evidence seen in Esses and her colleagues (1993) study wherein incidental happy or sad was induced and this affect had an impact on participants subsequent judgments of characteristics associated w 6 ethnic groups—sad affect increased tendency of participants to use negative stereotypes for Pakistanis and Native Indians; for positive affect, ppl used positive stereotypes for their own ethnic groups Influence of PositiveAffect -ppl who are happy tend to process info less analytically; they rely on heuristic cues; initial judgements, decisional shortcuts and other simplifying strategies and they are more likely to use stereotypes in their judgements of others—however if met w someone who radically diverges from them, the happy person has no problem giving up their reliance on stereotypes in making judgments abt that target -Bodenhausen, Kramer, and Susser conclude that there is little support for the idea that happiness promotes stereotypic thinking by constraining the perceivers capacity for more systematic thought; these research suggest that happy ppl are just not v motivated to expend the cognitive effort required to avoid using stereotypes in intergroup judgements Effects of NegativeAffect -Bodenhausen, Sheppard, and Kramer found that angry participants tended to make more stereotypic judgments, whereas participants who were sad did not differ from neutral affect participants in their use of stereotypes -also, found that mildly sad inds engage in more systematic, careful cognitive processing of info and are less likely to rely on stereotypes than are angry and happy ind's -incidental anger and anxiety tend to lead to increased use of stereotypes in social judgements whereas sadness does not -the most common negative moods that have been investigated are sadness and anger, bc these are most likely to occur naturally in the intergroup context Motivational versus Cognitive Capacity D
eficits -stereotyping: either ppl are not motivated to expend cognitive energy or ppl cannot think carefull abt others bc of decreased cognitive capacity—depends -regarding good moods, Schwartx and his colleagues have suggested that positive mood conveys the message that bc all is well w their env, they do not need to focus on new info thus these ppl may be motivated to maintain their good mood and avoid activity that negates it -Mackie and her colleagues have reported several experiments that support the idea that negative moods create a diminished cognitive capacity in the ind; other experients support the idea that negative moods affect the inds motivation to process info systematically -Martin, Ward,Achee and Wyer presned data suggesting that moods do not haves table implications—rather they have diff meanings depending on the persons interpreation of the mood—w diff interpretations, the same mood can had diff effects—positive moods will tell ppl to continue their tasks if the mood reflects the inds enjoyment (having a good time) but the postive mood will tell ppl to stop what they are doing if the mood reflects the level of goal attainment >on the other hand, negative moods will tell ppl to stop when the mood reflects the level of enjoyment (not having fun) but to continue when it reflects the persons level of goal attainment COGNITION Implicit Cognition -scientists have found that cognitive processes do function outside of consciousness and these processes can influence overt thoughts and behaviours Subliminal Messages -subliminal level influence: to perceive something w/o being consciously aware of the perception -ppl readily believe that their weight loss, quitting smoking, even self-esteem enhancement can be altered via presentation of a message below the level of awareness
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