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C12: chp 10

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Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 10: Trends and Unanswered Questions in Prejudice Research: Prejudice Against Other Groups: • Why has discussion often been limited to just racie, gender and age o These are the three main ways we cateogirze another person upon first perceiving them o These groups are almost an automatic part of our perception o More rsearch abut these group Atitudes towards overweight ppl: • A century ago it was desirable to be overweight • Being overweight was a status symbol • American seem to have a particulary strong aversion to person who are overweigth o More likely to openly display their prejudice toward overweigth ppl than toward other groups • Someonw who is overweight – violates the American ideal of self denial and self restraint • Overweight college students – particularly females – have more difficulty paying fo college because they are less likely to get financial help for college from their parents o In effect parents are discriminating against their own children o Believe that their daughter weight is the result of poor self control o Poltically conservative parents indulge in this more • Intense anti fat – attitudes were correlated with authrotariansims • Research indicates that most of this prejudice results from the attributions ppl mae about the reasons for beign overweight o Contralability o Outward indicator of defienciy o Feel prejudice • Seeing example of overweight ppl who have recently lost a lot of weight has the effect of further reinforcing the idea o Seeing examples of overweight ppl doing things to scuessfully lose weight is threating to their steoryepes of laziness o The threat itself translates to further entrench the stereotype o Subcateogrization of the weight loser as an outlier • Study: o Paul – how do you think person x looks o Person x is sitting next to fat person  Bad o Person X siting next to a normal person  Good o This relationship held true – regardless of the level of the perceived relationship btw the seated individuals – strangers or lover • Landlords – less likely to rent to obese ppl • Study: o John is fat b/c of genetics  Implict bias does not decrease but just stays the same o John is fat because he eats too much  Implicit bias increases • Read stories that were designed to produce empathy for fat ppl o Antifat attitudes did not diminish Attitutdes towards Lesbians and Gays: • I got your back paul • Hetrosexism – a stigmatizing of any sexual orientation other than heterosexual • Workplace hetrosexism and a lack of supportive interactions with others about the environment – led to a greater incidences of depresseion and distress o The impact of this treatment depdends on the number of supportive relationships they have but also of the non supportive interactions they have • Even comments from ppl who believe they are being supportive can be interpreted by the homo’s as unsupportive • Attitude of hetro’s towards fags depdends on o Gender o Target o Findings  HM (hetromen) and HW – indicate different attitudes toward gay and lesbians  Both have negative attitudes toward homo’s  HM – more negatives to gays than lesbians  HW – more prejudicial towards Lesbos • Efeminate gays – are regarded with hostilitily and contempt from more masculine men o Social identity theory – predicit such hostility toward a stereotype confirming individual in ones group • More Contact = less prejudiced • Education seems to only have an impact on reducing the prejudice of HW • Origin o ½ of Americans believing homo is a lifestyle and a choice o authoritarian personality associated with the person of prejudice o ppl see it is a violations of conventiaol social order and traditional values • degree of contact with homo – most significant preicotr of homophobia Attitudes toward the physically challendged: • studied the least • ableism or handicapism – derision, fear, disgust, prejudice, tereptypes and discrimination • study o 216 journalism programs o found that little if any training is devpted to the reporting of ablism o • learned in eearly childhood • black and white children – asked to rank order pictures – showing black or wite ppl who did or did not have a physical disability o children showed a strong pref for the pic depcicting the physically able o white kids ranked the handicapps even below the blacks • 1990 – Americans with disability act o hiring discrimation o ppl consider diability in terms of job sutibility o physically handicap considered better than metal handicap understanding the dynamic nature of intergroup interactions: Control Theory or Feedback Theory: • humans are continually seeking to match our behavioir to internal standards for that behavior • motivated to reduce discrepencies btw our standards and our behaviors • this complicates things – it makes it more difficult to attribute cause and effect • no longer were ppl subject to the influence of a clear identifiable causal variable – they were affected by and affecting their environment • mainstream psychologist – not a big fan of this theory o methodological problems were huge o how do you measure causation in a model of continuious feedback o this theory was put on the shelf – to wait for theory and rsearch to become sophisticated enough to begin to address the complex task of modeling the feedback loops of behaviors • a particular behavior can at the same time o an effect of the preceding moments cause o a causal agent in the following moment • 1996 devine chapter on prejudice – unsual o called for examining how prej emerges as a result of the interactions btw the majority and minority group o unless we begin to examine how each individual is affected by and affects the other individual in an interaction we will have an incomplete , simplistic understanding of intergroup behavior o the thesis of the chapter is that  stereotypes, anxiety and prejudice toward ougroups tend to promote misunderstanding and negative expectations about
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