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Canada (158,052)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYC14H3 (214)
Sisi Tran (101)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Sisi Tran

Chapter 9 : Cognition & Perception Artistic traditions is varies tremendously across cultures & across historical Masuda & Colleagues (2005) visited galleries in Europe & East Asia striking difference in paintings b/w them 2 things noticed about paintings: o Landscapes horizons were higher (15% on avg.) for East Asia than for Western o Figures in Portraits much larger (face 3X more) in Western than in East Asia Masuda & Nisbett there are painting (artistic) difference b/w culture because people from these cultures see the world differently o These difference reflect some fundamental difference in cognitive & perpectual process b/w the cultures Congtive & perception research inform us about most elemntray & essential psychological mechasims so how the mind works & how they (people) process info in daily life o In here where there are some of the clearest evidence for cross-cultural variability appears Explanation of cultural variation in Cogntion & perception is guided by 2 theme: o 1) there are cognitive tool that are universally available to people but not always used w/ same frequency or for same prupose o 2) cultural difference that do appear in cognitive & perceptual processes occurs because of the difference experience that people have growing up in their respective culture Analytical & Holistic Thinking Task - ask to which is the least likely out of the three dog, rabbit, carrot different answers refers to the way people attend to the world Analytical vs. Holistic thinking Westerner - answer is carrot since dong & rabbit are animals reflect Taxonmic categorization stimuli groped according to perceived similarity of their attributes East Asia answer is dog because rabbits eat carrot so they have relationship reflect Thematic categorization - stimuli grouped together on the basis of causal, temporal or spatial relationship among them Analytical thinking More common in Western cultures than in any cultures esp. East Asia focus on object & their attributes objects perceived independtly from their contexts & understood in terms of their component parts Attributes of objects as basis of categorizing them & set of fixed abstract rules is used to predict & explain the behaviour of these objects Holistic Thinking More common in East Asian & other cultures than in Western cultures focus on the orientation to the context s whole is assosicate way of thinking where there is atteintion to the relations among objects & among objects and their surrounding context objects understood in terms of how they relate to rest of context & their behaviour is predicted and explained on the basis of those relationships emphasises knowledge gained via experience vs. application of fixed abstract rules Orgin of these thinking are argued to arise from the different social experiences people have w/in individualistic & collectivistic societies Collectivist society tend to be socialized in raltional context & attention to relational concerns VS. Individualistic societys tend to be socialized to be independent & attention on objects o These will lead to people having primarily independent or interdependent self-concepts Independent self-concept understand people by focusing on their inner attributes & attend less to relattionships Interdependent self-concept - tend to conceive of people in tersm of their relationships w/ other Nisbett & college ways of understanding people also shape the kinds of information people attend to in their physical environment o Argue - difference b/w these 2 cultures were also present b/w Greeks & Chinese in the past Analytical thinking reflect in Greeks: Platonic Persecptive world is collection of discrete, unchanging objects & can be categorize by reference to set of universal principle o Seen in Aristoles view of gravity Elaborate formal logical system used ot serach truth according to abstract rules & syllogism invention of science Holistic thinking reflect in Ancient Chinese Confuciusism, Taoism & Buddhism emphasis on harmony, interconnectedness & change Through this thinking they had knowledge about action at distance 2000 years prior to Galileo also had knowledge about magnetism, acoustic resonance, moons role in tides before the West Reflected in their medical tradition & culture emphasis of harmony among people & nature Research suggest holistic thinking is widespread across world vs. analytic thinking (unusual) restricted to people that have contact w/ western society or education system Study Arab showed at least much of analytic thinking as the Chinese, Eastern Europeans were more holistic in their thinking than Western Europeans, Southern Italy more holistic response than northern Italy Henrich w/ Chiles indigenous population (farmers) gave holistic answers to the dog & rabbit problem aboveAttention Is a fundamental psychological process at a given time where is our cognitive activity directed at Analytical thinkers - more attention on spate part of scene Holistic thinkers attention more broadly across an entire scene 1949 Rorschach Ink Blot (projective test where people report what they see in ambiguous stimulus) o European- American described what they saw based on single aspect of card (e.g. blot on bottom as Ferrari) o Chinese- American likely to give whole card response described what they saw based on the entire image on the card Test where relational thinking is needed showed pairs of pictures so when one pic was shown the other pic was shown either (0%, 40%, 60%, or 100% of the time) later show one pic & asked the likelihood of the other pic o Result likelihood that the correct pic would appear were more accurate for Chinese than Americans Test where analytical thinking is needed Rod & Frame Task have to say whether rod is pointing straight up where the frame around the road is rotated independently providing misleading info have to focus on ROD only Analytical thinkers show field independence separate objects form their background fields Holistic thinkers shows field dependence tend to view objects as bound to thei
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