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Psychology (9,568)
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Chapter 12

Detailed Chapter 12 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Sisi Tran

Chapter 12- Living in multicultural worlds - Michaelle Jean who is currently the governor general of Canada; the Canadian representative of the monarch of England has moved from many places during her life. o First born in Haiti where soon after British, Dutch, & pirates invaded the country, then moved to Quebec. She is fluent in English, French, Spanish, Italian & Haitian Kreyol - Question becomes: what is Michaelle Jeans culture? - Not a simple answer because Michaelle has been populated by people from many different parts of the globe and a number of different countries & hence has been exposed to a diverse array of cultural messages. - Today there are no societies which include people from only one cultural background, even the most homogeneous societies contain individuals with different cultural heritages, traditions, religions, & languages - Even in countries where much research is done on like North America or specifically Toronto, there are more non-westerners than there are westerners in the city itself, and this makes its rather pointless to make any specific statements about the culture of Toronto which would apply to all its citizens. - Worldwide, about 130M people are living in countries in which they werent born in (= to population of Japan) - U.S.= 10% population has moved there from another country o 59% of Latino-American children, 90% of Asian Americans children are either born outside the U.S. or are second-generation residents - A few centuries ago, you rarely ever saw diverse people in a country, it was so much simpler to do research back then Difficulties in Studying Acculturation - Acculturation; process by which people migrate to and learn a culture that is different from their original (or heritage) culture - People move to a new country for many reasons; some are moving to be closer to family members, some move to seek fame and fortune, some move because they are refugees and have no choice but to leave their countries, some leave to study abroad with the intention of returning to their home country upon graduating, and some move as young children because their parents decide that it is in the familys best interest - The environment to which they move is dramatically different; it can either be cultural ghetto meaning its similar to their heritage dont have to interact much with the new host culture, other places they move to homogeneous societies in which they are different, others move to environments which discriminate against people from their cultural background, and some move to places which consist largely of people who have recently migrated from places all over the globe. Some move from rural to urban or vice versa. - Different people have different personalities, goals, and & expectations which affect their acculturation experiences What Happens When People Move to a New Culture? - Moving to a new culture involves psychological adjustment; acquiring a new language, learning new interpersonal & social behaviors, becoming accustomed to new values, often becoming a member of a minority group, & adjusting ones self concept Changes in Attitudes toward the Host Culture - Migrants; those that move from a heritage culture (original culture) to a host culture (their new culture). Also those who intend to stay temporarily (known as sojourners) and those who intend to move permanently (known as immigrants) - The acculturation curve: pg 513 (U-Shaped) o Study on Norwegian Fulbright scholars in the united states, conducted by Lysggaard, 1955) o Tested feelings of positivity towards the host culture (new culture) o According to the curve, the initial stage (honeymoon stage); theres a lot of positive feelings new people, new culture, new language; new experiences have lots of fun. o It is after the point in the crisis of culture shock stage which lasts from 6-18 months the curve declines. Here people get tired of the new language, new environment, find it tiring and difficult, realize there language skills arent good enough to fully function in the environment. This is when they start missing their home country, its food and the little things which they didnt care about before (symptoms of culture shock). o Culture shock; feeling of anxious, helpless, irritable, and in general homesick that one experiences on moving to a new culture.o Last stage is adjustment stage, here they start enjoying their experiences more, their language skills improve enabling them to function better in their daily lives, they become able to have conversations & make friendships with the locals, & they adapt to things in new culture ex food, t.v. They start to think more like the locals around them - There has been a lot of research which is consistent with the U-shape, however not all people have this U-shaped curve; some dont even have the honeymoon stage they are very anxious or have a lot of anxiety instead. - One societal future for the host culture; countries which are already diverse or have many immigrants coming it is easier to adjust to that country and culture, compared to a homogeneous society such as Japan for example. Here almost 99% of the population is Japanese, so even if you do learn the language and practices youll still be an outsider. Here the adjustment stage isnt seen and is the same for someone who has been living there for 5 years and 1 year. Here instead of a U shaped a L shape was seen - The success of acculturation influenced by the homogeneity of the society to which they
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