Textbook Notes (368,800)
Canada (162,168)
Psychology (9,697)
PSYC18H3 (275)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11

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Gerald Cupchik

Chapter 11 – Individual Differences and Personality Emotion Regulation • Physical aggression peaks between 24 and 42 months • People differ in both their success at managing emotions in ways appropriate to the social situation and the means they use to accomplish this management and regulation • Children’s ability to use language influences how they regulate their emotions • Mobility has an important effect: when infants begin to move and can start to satisfy some of their own desires, their need for an intense signalling system lessens • One view is that regulation starts with modulation of expression of emotion initially fostered by the caregiver, and gradually becomes internalized by the child • Stages of emotion regulation while failure at one stage has implications for subsequent stages In the first months the task is to achieve stability in functioning With neurological development and repeated interactions, the child learns during the first year to inhibit certain expressions and soothe the self At the end of the first year, attachment to close, emotionally available caregiver becomes the central issue Development of the self system, and of self-regulation – child develops a notion of an autonomous self • Emotion regulation: some refer to it as individual differences in intensity, frequency, and duration of emotions • Another meaning concerns the balance of emotions displayed by the individual • Also used to refer to the processes involved in modifying emotional reactions: the coping processes that lessen or augment the intensity of experience • Regulatory processes affect every stage of the emotion process: appraisal of the event, evaluation of the context, the suppression of urges, as well as the selection and control of various kinds of expression and action • Thompson’s definition of emotion regulation “the extrinsic and intrinsic processes responsible for monitoring, evaluating, and modifying emotional reactions, especially their intensive and temporal features, to accomplish one’s goals” • Emotion regulation is essential to socialization • Children who were able to regulate their emotions experience warm parental control • Suppression reduces rapport: emotional responsiveness is important for communication • Successful regulation is not accomplished by suppression • Shifting attention and reappraisal are the keys, and they are often accomplished by concentrating on what one is doing • As people get older their motivation increases to derive emotional meaning from life, rather than to expand emotional horizons • People tend to increase their skills of emotion regulation as they age Attachment The “Strange Situation (SS)” and styles of attachment www.notesolution.com • Bowlby saw attachment as an evolutionarily derived aspect of the parent-child relationship that is activated when the child experiences threat • Using the strange situation, Mary ainsworth identified three distinct attachment styles • “securely attached” infants are distressed when caregivers leave, but when their caregivers return they seek them, and can be comforted o Show both positive and negative emotions, as well as neutrality o Argued because their parents have been responsive to all their emotional expressions • “ambivalently attached” want to be near caregivers upon their return, but at the same time will not be comforted, and show a great deal of angry and resistant behaviour o Show more negative emotions such as anger o Infants may have been responded to only inconsistently, so that they have developed a strategy of noisy expression of negative emotions in an effort to get parents to respond to them o Mothers were most responsive to negative affect and were least responsive to positive affect • “avoidantly attached” make no effort to interact when their caregiver returns o Show fewer emotions of all kinds o Thought to have experienced repeated rejections and found that mothers were the least responsive to their babies’ negative emotions o Infants showed fewer facial and vocal displays of emotion during the strange situation that secure, similar levels of heart rate during the test, but higher cortisol levels after it • Disoriented/disorganized contradictory behaviour Internal working models of attachment • Early emotional interactions with caregivers lead children to build and internal working model of relationships a mental model, or set of beliefs, of what to expect in an intimate relationship o It is preverbal o Start in early relationships with caregivers, somewhat resistant to change and they affect all later intimate relationships o Each intimate relationship leaves and imprint • Kaplan and Main developed the Adult Attachment Inventory people were asked about their relationships with their parents when they were children, and also in the present o Adults were classified into secure/autonomous (secure), preoccupied (ambivalent), or dismissing (avoidant) • Found that adults do have relational styles that are measurable, and that something of theses styles is passed on from generation to generation • Measure of continuity of styles relating into adulthood 1) Followed 60 white middle class people who had been classified in the SS. 72% maintained their style of secure versus insecure attachment. A negative www.notesolution.com life event such as loss of a parent, parental divorce, parental physical or psychiatric illness was associated with switching into a different attachment style 2) 30 children in a project on family lifestyle (12 from conventional families, 18 from unconventional). Both initial attachment and continuity in both conventional and non conventional were similar 3) 57 children from backgrounds of poverty with high developmental risk. Did not find continuity of attachment style from age one to 21 • Found less strong evidence of continuity in Germany than in America • Although continuity does occur, they do not imply that internal working models of relating are rigid in programming behaviour Influences on attachment • Mothers who responded to their babies rapidly and consistently were more likely to have babies who were classified as secure in the Strange Situation and one year • The style of attachment that each individual acquires comes from parenting • No genetic evidence of the disorganized attachment Effects on attachment • Children classified as securely attached at one year have been found to have better relationships with other children, to be more sociable and communicative to adults, to have better problem-solving skills, and to be more compliant • Anxiously attached individuals were found more likely to interpret life events in pessimistic, threatening fashion, which may increase chances of depression Warmth and the socialization of emotions • Parental warmth and affection has been found to influence many aspects of a child’s development friendships, social skills, and many other aspects of later emotional well-being • Parental warmth predicted success of children’s friendships at school, in both biological and adoptive families • In a warm atmosphere, not only is the mother responsive, but so is the child • Intergenerational effect of warm parenting has been
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