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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC21H3
Professor
David Haley
Semester
Fall

Description
CH 16: Self and Other: Getting to Know Me, Getting to know you The Sense of Selff  The individual self refers to aspects of the self that make a person unique  The relational self refers to aspects of the self that involve connections to other people and develops out of social interactions i.e. internal working model of the self  The collective self= persons concept of self within a group i.e. group based on race, ethnciity, or gender  These selves act as a means of impression management or an opportunity to try out new identities  Another opportunity for a new self comes form the technology of personal genomics= genomic self= info about biological and psychological traits  Developmental origins of Self concept: babies as young as 18 weeks gaze at their reflections happily but do not know they are looking at themselves kids under age 1 act as if some other child is behind the mirror and they stare at the mirror and don’t ouch their own face which has a red sticker on it  sense of self recognition is restricted to the here and now  There are 3 stages in the dev of self descriptions in childhood and another 3 in adolescence  @3/4: describe themselves in terms of observable physical features  @ 5/7: describe themselves in terms of competencies i.e. I am a good runner  @ 8/10: describe in more complex terms i..e use labels that focus on abilities and interpersonal attributes, they integrate success in diff areas i.e. im smart, popular, etc)  @11/ early adolescence: describe in terms of social relationships, personality traits and other general, stable psychological characteristics  based on interpersonal attributes and social skills  @ middle adolescence, young ppl are introspective and preoccupied with what others think about them= have trouble integrating self representations to resolve contradictions  @late adolescence: self descriptions emphasize personal beliefs, values and moral standards they think about future and possible selves  Green Box: Cultural Context: How Culture Shapes Self Representations: westerns emphasize an autonomous self that can be described in terms of unique personal traits Asians emphasize an interdependent self that can described in terms of social roles and responsibilities in a network of relationships o western cultures encourage kids to embrace positive self views and Asian cultures value self criticism and humility because they facilitate group harmony and solidarity o American moms focused attention on the child and what the child had accomplished, acknowledged the kids expressions of individuality, and socialized the child to remember personal experiences highlighting individual uniqueness and autonomy o Chinese moms focused on group actions with the mom playing a lead role and posing pointed questions they used storytelling as a way of reminding kids of their place in the social hierarchy and need to follow the rules to maintain social connectedness and harmony  Autism affects kids ability to develop a sense of self  autistic kids cant recognize themselves as independent social beings kids with autism spectrum disorder show delays in self recognition  Autistic kids also show similar neurological responses to their own face, a familiar face and an unfamiliar face= they do not distinguish between self and other Self Perceptions  Self esteem= the evaluative component of self that taps how positively or negatively people view themselves in relation to others  Kids with high self esteem view themselves as competent and capable and are pleased with tho they are, whereas kids with low self esteem view themselves as inadequate and inferior to others  High self esteem ppl = happier and high esteem in childhood= positive adjustment outcomes in school success, relationships with parents and peers and lack of anxiety and depression  High self esteem in childhood doesn’t prevent kids from smoking, drinking, early sexual activity and drinking high self esteem can be related to prejudice and antisocial behavior  Ppl with high self esteem== more than likely to justify their antisocial behavior and belittling of victims  Domain specific perceptions: children dev domain specific self perceptions in areas such as scholastics, athletics and appearance there are meaningful distinctions between global self esteem and self perceptions in specific areas  Learning self appraisal: children’s self assessments relate moderately well to their teachers= kids relate moderately well to their teachers assessments who sugest that kids views of their own competencies have at least some reality o with development and a history of feedback from others, children become more realistic in their self appraisals o how kids evaluate themselves in diff domains affects their overall sense of self esteem depending on the importance they place on each domain o over time a reciprocal relation develops between kids self perceptions in a domain and the interest, motivation, and effort they devote to activities in that domain i.e. when kids think that they are socially competent= they are more likely to approach social situations with lots of self confidence= increases their success in social relation and success in turn increases confidence and their social self perception  gender variations in global self esteem: girls have lower global self esteem tan boys beginning in middle school very evident in adolescence o physical appearance contributes to the gender diff in self esteem as well few girls can live up to the ideals of beauty in the popular media  social determinants of self esteem: o Faily infleunces: accepting, affectionate and involved parents =high self esteem kids o Parents approval= important for fostering self perceptions in the domains of scholastic competence and good conduct o Influence of peers and mentors: kids self esteem becomes influenced by their peers opinions as they get older this is because public support= objective and credible than support from caring but biased friends o Positive/ negative feedback from the alleged peer group= higher/lower self esteem o Praising kids and boosting self esteem= parents should praise kids strategies and progress rather than their intelligence they should also praise socially desirable behaviors Identitify Formation  Forming an identify involved defining oneself as a discrete, separate entitiy and addressing the questions, who am I and wht will I become in terms of religious views, political values, gender preference and occupational aspirations= this process is a major challenge in adolescence  Failure to achieve a stable identity= identity confusion  The goal for every young person is to achieve a stable and satisfying identity, but also not every person achieves the desired state of commitment to an identity  The fortunate ones actively engage in identity exploration and in the end, commit themselves to a satisfactory and acceptable identity  Idenitity acheivemnt= the most developmentally advanced identitiy outcome= associated with several positive outcomes, including high self esteem, cognitive flexibility, mature moral reasoning, clear goal setting and better goal achievement  Adolescents who have achieved a sense of identity are able to develop close intimate relaitonships more readily  Some adolescents= foreclosed group, remain committed to their childhood values and beleifs and don’t use adolescence as a period to explore other potential identities= they are more authoritarian and inflexible and more succeptible to extreme ideologies and movements  Another group of adolescents actively explore but fail to reach any resolution about who they are and that they believe and value= moratorium= reached a plateau and are still in the process of identity formation= are anxious and intense and have strained or ambivalent relationships with parents and other authority figures  Diffused identitiy= neither engage in exploration nor are concerned about committing themselves to a particular identity= take life as it happens= least mature and are rebels and delinquents and abuse drugs  These identity outcomes are diff levels in the idenitiy process and ppl can shift from one to another even during adolescence  Not all adolescents go under identity shifts= 60% remain in same level from early to late adolescence  Many factors influence adolescent identity development= biological changes during puberty, awarenesss of self as a sexual being, sexual identity exploration, cognitive development advances, more abstract reasoning, etc  Green Box: Into Adulthood: Identity formation continues oEmerging adulthood= age period between the late teens and the mid 20’s, is a period of unprecedented freedom to explore identity oIt is also a time of anxiety and uncertainty as establishing an identity becomes increasingly important oCollege students are more likely to have achieved an identity if their parents are supportive, respect their wishes and needs and avoid intrusive and manipulative strategies o Identity development continues during adulthood= greatest change during period from early to middle adulthood when the likelihood of having an achieved identitiy increased and the likelihood of having identity diffusion decreased oadults with a foreclosed idenitity were likely to have strong positive relationsips witht heir parents and relatives oadults morotarium identity= weak relationships with their parents, participate in community and political activities and become more liberal  Ethnic identity: recognition of being member of a particular race or ethnic group o Kids and youth who are part of minority groups face the challenge of how to balance their sense of distinctive identity while still functioning in the broader culture o Development of ethnic identity: emerges gradually over childhood and adolescence o Babies look longer at faces of ppl of their own race o Preschool kids only have a global understanding of their culture and use ethnic labels in a rote fashion not until early elementary school do they understand what ethnic labels mean o Only askids develop cognitively in the early school years do they begin to recognize which behaviors are part of the majority culture and which are unique to their own ethnic group positive feelings and preference for ethnic group activities also begin to dev during this period o The most active period of ethnic identity development is adolescence when the general process of self definition begins o How quickly and completely adolescents achieve a clear sense of their ethnic identity varies for people o having a clear, positive ethnic identity is related to high self esteem , more competence, more optiimisim and more positive feelings towards the ethnic group true for adolescents that don’t experience much ethnic discrimination o minority kids benefit from embracing their ethnicity and forming a positive ethnic identitiy are also less likely to become delinquents, do better in school, experience less depression, and have more positive attitudes toward other ethnic groups o Biracial and Bicultural children and youth face unique challenges in foraging an ethnic identity o Bilcultural identity involves simulataneous adoption of the languages and practices of 2 cultures developing such an identitiy would permit children and adolescents to meet the dual expectations they encounter everyday as they move between majority and minority group settings o Adolescents who adopt a marginal identitiy are decultured= they have rejected their ancestral culture and are alienated from the majority culture they are likely to have social and psychological problems o Factors that promote ethic identity= parents (they provide soclailization process that serves a protective function and makes kids more resilient in the face of prejudice)  Higher level of racial socialization in African American families was associated with less aggression and acting out in adolescence  most minority group aprents do socialize their kids regarding ethnic issues and prejudice, especially older kids  Parents who don’t socialize their kids leave them vulnerable and unprepared for discrimination  As kids enter adolescence, their peers become another socializing force and shaper of ethnic identity  In high school most kids hangout with kids of own ethnic group  There are positive effects of across group contact= kids tend to develop more mature ethnic identities and more favorable attitudes towards ppl of other ethnic identities  Green Box: Sexual Orientation and Identity: it has been estimated about 5% of adolescenty the end of their second year they can describe and idenitify themselves as gay, lesbian or bi o As early as 4 grade, some expressed doubts about their heterosexuality o they expressed less interest in activities stereotypically linked to their own gender o compared with kids who were confident of their heterosexuality, they were more likely to report an impaired self concept o during the idenitity acceptance pahse, they began to accept their same sex orientation o idenitity integration was the final phase in this idenitiy process as gay, elesbian or bi ppl accept their orientation and acknowledged their idenitity to others o fathers are less accepting of their kids homosexual orientation than are mothers, and members of conservative religious groups are also less accepting Development of Knowledge about Others  by the time they are a year old, infants begin to understand that peoples actions are intentional and goal directed  by 18 months they are able to recognize simple social norms sich as bedtime rituals, fam meal times and what happens when kids are dropped off at child care kneowlede of these scripts gives the foundation for undertstanding a broad range of social events, including greeting friends, lining up for school lunches, and following rules for games such as monopoly or soccer  as they grow olderm kids come to understand other peoples mental states, thoughts, beleifs desires and how they affect behavior  this understnaidng has important implications for social dev because it allows kids to move beyond observavle actions and apperances and respond to unseen states  researcher stiduing kids dev of a theory of mind have used stories to find out whether kids realize how characters actions are absed on their mental states  theory of mind= kids understanding that people have mental states such as throughts, beleifes and desires that affect their behavior it allows kids to get beyond peoples observable actions and appearences and respond to their unseen states  the intellectual capapbilty exists in alost all people and to some extent in primates as well  kids wth autism however show delays or in some cases serious deficits in developing a theory of mind because htye don’t understand that mental states can cause behavior or that other peoples mental states may be diff from their own therefore they are una
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