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CH 10.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC21H3
Professor
David Haley
Semester
Fall

Description
CH 10: Sex and Gender: Vive la Difference Gender Stereotypes  Traditionally , the word sex was used to refer to a persons biological identitiy as male and female and gender was used to refer to the persons socially constructed identity  Gender typing: the process by which kids acquire the values, motives and bejaviors considered appropriate for their gender in their particular culture  Gender based belief: an idea that differentiates males and females  Gender identitiy: the perception of onself as either male or female  Gender role preference: desire to posses certain gender typed characteristics  Gender stability: the fact that males remain males and females remain female  Gender constancy: the awareness that superficial alterations in appearance or actitivy do not alter gender  kids are aware of these adult and child gender stereotypes from an early age  childrens knowledge of stereotypes increases between ages 3-5 and is well developed by the time they enter school  gender stereotype: belief that members of a culture hold about acceptable and appropriate attitudes, interests, activities, psychological traits, social relationships, occupations and physical appearance for males and females  Gender role: composite of the behaviors actually exhibited by a typical male or female in a given culture  reflection of a gender stereotype in everyday life  Gender stereotypes appear in every culture and similarities outweigh differences across cultures  Chinese kids showed that they likes masculine boys better than feminine boys relatively more than did kids in Israel= kids in more traditional, collectivistic culture are less tolerant when boys violate gender stereotypes  Both chinese and Israeli kids thoughts that girls who played with dolls were more feminine and girls who played war game were more masculine and they liked the feminine girl more than the masculine girl Gender Differences in Behaviors, interests and activities  Consistent male and female differences in some beajviors and characteristics are evident in CH and others develop as men and women are influenced by work, power, status, child bearing and homemaking experiences  Behavior differences in childhood: girls are physically and neurologically more advanced at birth learn to walk earlier, reach puberty at younger ages , prefer to look at faces rather than objects, by 4 months the average duration of mutual gazing between girls and women is 4 times longer than with boys, maintain more eye contact during social interactions, better at recognizing and processing facial expressions, better verbal creativity, more compliant, read emotional signals at younger ages, control emotions, more emotionally responsive with moms, care more about frineds, play in small groups, engage in self discolure and social convo  Boys show more muscular dev, lung size, heart size, do better at activities involving strength and motor skills, visual spatial abilities, look at objects such as mechanical mobiles rather than moving faces, more physically active, etc  Children also exhibit gender typed interests from childhood and show clear prefrences for playing with gender appropriate toys in childhood in a child care center when they were 1.5- 3 years girls toys associated with appearance and guys with action, aggression and violencee  Childrens toy choices may be broadening  In AD, gender instensification is observed with onset of puberty that makes ppl shift toward more typical gender typed patterns of behavior  During ad, consistent with gender stereotypes, girls become more emotionally expressive and boys more emotionally restrictive  Gender roles intensify when adults become parents  The roles of women express expressive characteristics= involving nurturance and concern with feelings (typically female)  Men show more instrumental characteristics= involving task and occupation orientation (typically male)  Ppl who are strongly masculine or fem at one age tend to continue to be strongly masculine and feminine as they age  Even adult behavior may be predicted from gender typed interests in CH  Stability is stronger when kids characteristics were congruent with gender stereotypes  On average, women are paid 22% less than men occupational choice= factor in the gender wage gap women pick jobs that pay less since they need time off to have kids and felxbible hours to care for thir families  Occupations that adults choose are influenced by their gender role orientation  Boys preference for stereotyped toys remains constant as they age whereas girls interests in gender stereotyped actitivite decreases  Boys more likely than girls to deveop extremely intense interests in objects and actitivites and these passionate activities are often gender stereotyped  Western culture is male oriented= men given more esteem, priovledges, and status then women and all are encouraged to do things that are regarded as higher status  Partnets and peers tend to accept a girls ocassional tantrums, rough and tumble play, blue jean apparel and play with trucks sissy boys rejected and tomgirls accepted  Gender identity is congruous with biological sex transgender individuals gender identitiy doesn’t match their assigned biological sex o they suffer gender dysphiria= unhappiness because their gender identitiy represents a diff sex then their genitals= depression, anxiety, fear, anger , self multulation,, low self esteem or suicidal ideation o trangender kids insist they are or want to be of the other sex and have negative feelings towards their genitals= signs as early as 2-3 years of age and most reveal their transgender idennitty in AD or adulthood o revelation takes parents by surprise, which is often followed by shock, denial, anger, grief, guilt, shame and concern about the youths safety, healthy, surgery, employment and future relations  fathers have difficulty accepting their kids gender variance  some evidence suggests that sex differentiation of the brain may be responsible for gender variation  Jorgensen case Biological Factors in Gender Differences Evolutionary Theory and Gender Development  Evolutionary theory stresses the principles of natural selection and adaptation these princples can be applied to gender development to explain gender typed behaviors that increase the likelihood that a persons genes will be passed onto the next generation to be able to pass genes from one generation to the next, indivduals need to have mating strategies that enhance their reproductive success males need aggressive and competitive skills to compete successfully with other males Hormones and Social Behavior  Hormones are also biological contributors to gender differences and gender typing they are associated with sexual characteristics and reproductive functions are present in differeing concentrations in males and females beginning in infancy  Higher prenatal androgen exposure= stronger were girls preferences for masculine play and activities  preference continued even when parents tried to encourage feminine play  Genetic males born without a penis and raised as girls showed male behavior, because o high levels of testosterone  aggression also linked to testosterone levels  Men and women think and act differently= there is a female brain which is organized into socially adept, empathetic, friendly and sensitive to social and emotional signals and there is a male brain=oriented toward objects and organized to systemize information  Ratio of grey to white matter is larger in females than in males  More activation in social regions for females i.e. in left PFC= when they look at funny cartoons and in the MFC when they react empathetically to an opponents loss in a gambling brain= smaller in individuals with autism spectrum disorder= have extreme male brains  Amygdala plays role in emotion processing and is larger in men and women have larger orbital frontal region which is responsible for modulating input into the amygdala Females have more cortex available for modulating emotional input= better processing of emotions and consolidation of emotional memories  Right hemo involved in processing visual and social emotional info and left brain responsible for verbal info processing= men have more laterality in the brain tan women= more specialized for processing language in left and visual info in right  Men withj left hemi damage are more likely to get verbal deficits than women with left hemi damage and men whose right hemi is damaged show more spatial deficits than women with right hemi damage  Ends of the cc= bundles of fibers connecting the l and r hemi= facilitates transfer of information between the hemi= larger in female = reduced lateralization in females Genetics of Gender  1349 genes are expressed differently in the brains of men compared with of the brains of women= evidence that sex diffs in the brain are genetically programmed  genes scattered across all 46 chromosomes are expressed differently in male anf female brains= we also know that the extent to which individuals behavior is gender typed relates to genetic factors  boys are more likely than girls to believe that other people think of cross gender tpyed play as bad and to be influenced by this belief Biology and Cultural Expectations  physical and hormonal factors allowin women to bear and breast feed kids program females to be responsive to the signs and signals of infants and children  gender linked responses to babies are affected both by biological and evolutionary programming and by cultural conditioning Cognitive Factors in Gender Typing  gender typing also a cognitive basis  feud: children form their gender identitiy around age 5 or 6 when they become curious about their own sexual autonomy and are alerted to the differences in the sexual autonomy of males ans females after forming a gender identitiy, kids get male or female traits or bheaviirs via identification  identification= Freudian concept that kids think of themselves as being the same as their same sex parent  according to cog dev theory: kids categorize themselves as male or female on the basis of physical and behavioral clues and then behave in ways they understand to be gender appropriate, making stable gender typed hoices by the time they are 6 or 7 years old  according to the information processing gender schema theory, kids beign to develop their own nave theories about gender differences and form schemas of gender appropriate beahaviors when they are about 2-3 years old Cognitive Development Theory  cognitive theory of gender typing: kolhlbers theory: kids use physical and behavioral clues to differentiate gender roles and to gender type themselves very early in life  they then find it rewarding to behave in gender appropriate ways and to imitate same gender models  children go through 3 phases in understanding gender  2-3 years: acquire basic gender identity, recognizing that they are either a girl or a boy  4-5: they acquire the concept of gender stability, recognizing that males remain males and females remain females  6-7: children acquire the notion of gender constancy= recognizing that superficial changes in appearance or activities do not alter gender  children begin to recognize males and females as distinct categories when they are still infancts and cannot understand labels and language  genital knwoeldge is an important determinant of understanding gender constanct  children pply gender cosntanct to themselves earlier than they apply it ot others= preschoolers got greater gender constancy for themselves by age 4.5 but didn’t understand that the concept applied to other kids until they were 5.5 Gender Schema Theory: AN infromaiton processing approach  gender schema theory: the view that kids develop schemas or naïve theories
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