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Canada (161,877)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYC21H3 (41)


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Carly Prusky

Ch6: Self and other: getting to know me, getting to know you Three areas of development: 1) understanding self 2) understanding others 3) communicating with others The sense of self Individual self: aspects of the self that makes a person unique, Eg: a person may see himself as hardworking, physically fit, confident Relational self: aspects of the self that involve connections to other ppl and develop social interactions. Eg: child in relation to other ppl such as parents, siblings Collective self: person’s concept of self within a group, eg: group based on race, ethnicity or gender Online self and genomic relatively recent form of self-representation Developmental origins of self-concept o experiment to study self-recognition: putting a red spot on child’s nose or forehead in front of mirror results ~ 1 yr olds: act as if some one else is behind the mirror, they don’t touch their own face 2 yr olds: all children giggle and show embarrassment – clearly exhibiting self-recognition. However, its only restricted to the “here and now” so if you show them a videotape of this experiment, they don’t realize that its them in the video, and hence they don’t touch their own foreheads/nose o at 3-4 yrs old, child describes themselves “I have blue eyes, I like to swim, I have 2 brothers” (physical features, preferences and social characteristics) o at 5-7 yrs old, child describes their social competences “I am good at running, jumping and sch work” o at 8-10 yrs old, children are aware of their private selves and unique feelings and thoughts and in more complex terms “I am smart, popular, nice and helpful” their self concept becomes aligned with cultural values, roles and preferences o at early adolescence, beginning age 11, they describe themselves in terms of social relationships, personality traits etc “I am good looking, friendly and talkative, intelligent, or depressed” o at middle adolescence, they are preoccupied with what others think of them o in late adolescence, self-descriptions consist of personal beliefs, values and moral standards. They think abt future and possible selves o westerners emphasize an autonomous self that are described in terms of personal traits whereas Asians emphasize themselves as an interdependent self that can be described in terms of social roles and responsibilities in a network of relationships (I am my mom’s child, my grandma’s grandchild”) Difficulty developing a sense of self: autistic children o autistic children are less proficient in understanding emotions o they are poor at self-recognition and show delays in the self-recognition experiment o they do not recognize themselves in the mirror self-perceptions  global self-esteem o self-esteem: a global evaluation of one’s worth as a person o high self-esteem  happier, +ve adjustment to sch success, good relationships with parents and peers and lack of depression and anxiety o low self-esteem  they feel inadequate and inferior to others  domain-specific perceptions o five domains: scholastic ability, athletic competence, physical appearance, behavioral conduct and social acceptance o one can be good at scholastic ability but be poor at athletics  learning self-appraisals o children’s views of their own self competencies have some reality in them o how children evaluate themselves depends on the importance they place on each domain  gender variations in global self-esteem o girls have lower global self-esteem than boys in middle childhood and is evident in adolescence o this may be because boys are more dominant and assertive and take more opportunities to participate in athletics  social determinants of self-esteem  family influences children with higher self esteem had parents that were more understanding, set clear and consistent rules. Children with authoritative parents had higher self-esteem than children with authoritarian parents  influence of peers and mentors support from peers in the “public domain” – that is, in classes, clubs, teams, - is more imp than support from close friends in “private domain” even strangers can affect a child’s self-esteem  praising children and boosting self-esteem boosters like “you’re so smart” does not necessarily promote self-esteem – it sets them up for disappointment ~ children praised for their talents did worse on an experiment while children who praised for their effort performed better and hence, increased in child’s self-esteem Identity formation Identity: defining oneself as a discrete, separate entity Identity achievement  high self-esteem, mature moral reasoning, clear goal setting and better goal achievement Foreclosed  group that remain committed to their childhood values and beliefs and do not use adolescence as a period to explore other potential identities. They are more authoritarian and inflexible Moratorium  adolescents that are still in the process of identity formation Diffused  neither engaging in exploration nor concerned abt committing themselves to a particular identity. They “take life as it happens”. These individuals are viewed as the least mature in their id development; are angry and depressed, lonely or rebellious. Lack of caring attitude with academics and a sense of hopelessness Ethnic identity : refers to the sense of belonging to a certain race or ethnic group  development of ethnic identity ~ in infancy, babies look longer at faces of their own race than faces of other races (showing that they are aware of race and ethnicity) ~ preschool children participate in many activities that are culture or subculture specific ~ the most active period of ethnic-identity development is adolescence ~ having achieved a clear, positive ethnic identity is related to high self-esteem, more optimism and more social competence, as well as more +ve feelings toward the ethnic group ~ the ones who identified with the major
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