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Psychology (9,545)
PSYC21H3 (41)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Haley

CHAPTER THREE Biological Foundations Genes Temperament and More BIOLOGICAL PREPAREDNESS FOR SOCIAL INTERACTIONfocus on 4 aspects of biology contribute to social develop o 1 Biological preparedness visual auditory olfactory and tactile capacities present at birth o 2 Neurologicalbrain regions and growth and how theyre related to social behavr o 3 Geneticsshape childrens characteristics and affects was which social world responds to them o 4 Temperament from birth babies differ from each otherHOW ARE BABIES PREPAREDbabies responsiveness to others is adaptive bcs increase caregivers interest and ensures survivalFrom Biological Rhythms to Social Rhythmsbehavr follows biological rhythm learned to control and regulate st acquiring biol regularotry skills over 1 3 m able to interact with mothers in synchronous way synchrony mother and infant show predictable degree of responsiveness to each others signals during interactionpremature infants of 610 weeks biol rhy not developed fully such as sleep wake cycle so less synchrony with mother at 3 mVisual Preparation for Social Interactionbabies attracted to visual stimulation stare longer at objects that have large visible elements movement clear countours and lots of contrastall qualities of human facefaces appealing having boundaries hairlines and chin and contrasts dark lips light skin and often movingInfants look at features they see best eyes mouth hairespecially eyes bcs preference for face looking directly at themWhen men given spray of oxytocin hormone released during labour and childbirth and passed to infants in placentapay more attention to eyes of faceBy 3 m identify face as wholeLook longer more brain activity responding to faces than objectsPrefer mothers fact over strangerfMRIs studies stuggest corticol region devoted to face recognitionAuditory Preparedness For Social Interactionauditory system developed before birthbabies can remember story theyve heard before bron studyasked pregnant women to read aloud dr seuss the cat in the hat twice a day for last 65 wks of pregnancy and after birth infants preferred to listen to it rather than unfamiliar bookbiol programmed to respond to snd of human voices open eyes wider and look for speakerby 4m can distinguise differences among almost all of 50 phonetic contrasts in adult langcan hear high pitched sound better so like it morebaby talk exaggerate speech louder slower use longer vowels shorter sentences etc kids like this more than adult talk even if from diff langdevelop preference for own lang o at 9m tune out words and sounds from other lang o respond to speakers emotional tones responding positively to warm and inviting utterances and neg to angry and prhibitory onesSmell Taste and TouchNB can distinguish odours and tastes and prefer ones adults doWhen smell mothers breast open eyes cry less and try to suckMothers can rec baby thru smell after 12 daysInfants develop preference for food consumed by othersSense of touch 1 of first senses to developWhen patted and stroked and rubbed smile and vocalize more and cry and fuss less Study premature babies given three 15 min massages daily for 10 days vs another grp who didntthose who got massage had 47 more weight gain were awake and active more showed less mature behavrs spent 6 fewer days in hospitalInfants recognize mothers and fathers by skin textures and touches as well as appearance of facial featuresBeyond Faces and Voices Primed to Be a Social Partnerby 23m enoy face to face play with parents by showing more pos favial expressions vocalize more and exhibit less distress in these interactions than when play with toysinfants regulate interactions mainly with their gaze when too much stimulation turn away cry or distract selvessometimes missteps occur play not so synchronous30 of face to face interactions bw mothers and infancts are smooth and well coordinatedinfancts exposed to cocaine prenatally have difficulty managing face to face interactions more passive and withdrawn and express more neg affectdepressed mothers behavrs ften poorly timed or intrusive affective plays neg so more neg affect and self firected regulatory behavr by infant o researchers asked mothers to act depressed unresponsive silent and present unmoving face23m infants react neg and become upset at mothers still face o those with history of successful interchanges with mother try to solicit mothers normal behavr by leaning forward vocalizing smiling and reaching out o after such attempts look away droop lose postural control and try calming selves by thumb sucking and rocking o face to face interactions imp infants learn that adults who r responseive to their overtures and thru actions can control others behavrlearn about turn takinginfants eventually learn they can alter course of interaction by their behavr and emotional expressionsand can sustain attention for longer periodslearn their role is initator and responderWHY ARE BABIES PREPAREDprepared by evolution to expect certain envts and process some types of info more readily and efficiently than othersthis is adaptive and useful for survival of infant and species in generaldepend on care so biol prepared to be responsive to social partners and have set of social responses ensures needs metthese behavrs developed when threat of predators resulted in protection and survival behavrs but now imp bcs keep parents involved and investedmodern evolution theoriests say both being born into and reared in good envt is impTHE NEUROLOGICAL BASIS OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENTThe Braincerebrumtwo connected hemispheres of brainlargest part of human brain o this makes us human speech and self awareness and those shared with vertebrate animals such as sensory perception motor abilities and memorycerebral cortex covering layer of cerebrum which contains cells that control specific functions such as seeing hearing moving and thinkinghas 90 of brains cell bodieso Specified functions seeing hearing moving feeling thinking speaking traced to specific regions of cerebral cortexfrontal cortex process of emotional infolimbic system brain structures that forms inner border of cortex regulation of emotion and social behavr o amygdala one of structures in limbic system recognition of fear and surprise
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