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PSYC32H3 (34)
Chapter 1

PSYC31_ Chapters 1,3,5 .docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC32H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 1Intro to Clinical NeuroPsych Clinical neuropsych is a specialty area focusing on the brains functions within healthy individuals and those with impairmentIt is applied because it deals with assessment diagnosis and treatment Vehicle accidents are the most common reason for TBIs malesfemalesExperimental Neuropsychology focuses on brain behaviour relationships with humans and other animalsdescribes structures and functions Neuropsychology dates back to 1913 with Osler it carried on with Hebb Lashley and was the essential study to the relationship between brain and behaviourThe study of the brain goes back to the start of civilizationAnicent Hypothesis to Modern Theoriesancient uses archival dataTrephination goes back at least 7000 ya ago and successfull healing began in the bronze age It is widespread and there are thousands of skulls foundSymbolic and medical trephination occuredIt appears some of the ancient doctors were aware of infections and became quite precise It was a long learning process through a number of failures that include individuals who died after or during the procedureThe Egyptians didnt think much of the brain but treated its ailments with prescriptions and also had a triage system for patientsVivisection was eventually used by the greeks to study the brain behaviour relationshipDuring the middle ages the theories of animal spirits being contained in the ventricles later became to be known as the ventricular localization hypothesis Later termed the Cell doctrine because of the division of compartments The animal spirits was CSFPythagoras was the first to suggest the brain was the organ for thought the brain hypothesis The Hippocratic Oath a code among Hippocrates and related physiciansHe displayed that the brain controlled sensing and control in a contralateral way He stressed a sound body healthy environments and exerciseHe stressed holistic medicine a belief that the mind body and soul must be addressed for treatment a naturalist Plato the soul is divided into appetite reason and temper within the brainThe brain because it was closest to heaven and he discussed the mind body issueAristotle thought the heart was the seat of the soul and that the brain was the source of tears and cool liquid that counteracted warm blood arising from the heart which was also the seat of multiple emotions in his cardiac hypothesis Galen came along and is the father of experimental physiologist and physicianChallenged Aristotle and held the brain was the seat for reason and emotionLater came out with his humoural theory specific to the seasons organs fluids and disorderspersonalities Was intrigued by aploplexy strokes in the brain which he thought to be caused by too much cold thick humour such as phelgm or black bile which obstructed flowMiddle ages were characterized by religious theory and demonology arising from the spirits in the brain aristotle is adopted as sacred as he stressed the heart and did not rely on science this was suitable for the church Magnus the monk was the first to stray from localized ventricular theory and held that the brain structures of the cortex midbrain and cerebellum controlled behaviourThe Renaissance marked an era of scientific flourishing and inquiry where dissection was available and done by Da Vinci and Vesalius Descarte came to the pineal gland as the seat of the soul because it is unitary disagreed with Platos tripartite and came out with dualism of the mind body problemMonism is the thought that there is no separation and follows a set of unified set of laws in natureWillis came around and studied the brain structures extensively we was remarkably accurateLocalization of Brain functioning the idea that the brain has certain functions and cognitive abilities that are located within localized or located specific areas Gall was a major proponent holding that there were anatomical and physiological differences in the localized parts of the brains between individuals giving them there variationPhrenology came in after because of Galls theories He also found that the cortices had important functions and that the cortex was responsible for sending information to the spinal cord through the pyramidal tracts also discovered the role of the corpus callosumFlourens came in after and reinforced localization with his ablation procedures but showed that it did not result in concrete deficits but generalized ones due to the science of neuroplasticity The more damage there was the less neuroplasticity could occur and thus there was more dysfunction in proportion to the damageNeuroplasticity is the notion that various brain areas are able to take over functions for one another when one area becomes damage or destroyed He showed the cerebellum was important for balance and ablation of the medulla ceased breathing and basic life functioningThe scientific method is the hallmark of the 19th century and turned psychology into a scientific inquiry in many waysControlling the environment and variables is crucial for causal explanation must be testable must be repetitive must follow data and mathematical inquiryPinel comes in around this time and stresses humanism in treating the mentally illThis influenced americans who turned and started the mental hygiene movement and moral therapy Diagnostic classification systems began to arise and become complicated and sophisticatedA Diagnostic classification system is a system for classifying medical and psychiatric disorder and lists symptoms of a particular disorder and various other facts such as epidemiology and etiology Darwin came along and shocked the world with evolution and stressed the adaptive nature of survival and behaviours Bouillaud asserted the brain has special organs and one was related to speechAubertin showed that specific higher order functions were localized Dax showed that damage to the left hemispherespeech issuesBroca found his area in the posterior lower and left frontal love and articulated his ocncept of aphasia the inability to use or comprehend languageHe showed that language was localized to the left hemisphere which became to be known as lateralization of functions Wernicke came along and found Wernickes area and Aphasia Conduction aphasia the inability to both receive and and produce language via the damage of the arcuate fasciculus Expressive receptive and conductive aphasia is the tripartite hereJackson believed in holistic brain functioning and not on localization of function and saw the brain working as a cohesive continuum in a hierarchal structure the spinal cord brain stem forebrain Lashley combined the theory of localization and equipotentiality the belief that higher cortical functions are too complex to be confined to any single area of the brainCame out with his principle of mass action the extent of the impairment is directly proportional to the mass damaged Also agreed that each part of the brain is responsible for more than one functionLuria saw the areas of the brain controlling the motor sensory and executive tripartite Sperry studied split brain patients showed that the left hemisphere is more analytical rational and verbal whereas the right was more spatial and emotional Halstead made the first lab in 1935when there was much theorizing about structure and functionsBegan the task of assessing brian impairment indirectly with neuropsychological tests obsessed with reliable and valid measures of the constructs he studies which culminated in the HalsteadReitan Neuropsych batteryLuriaNebraska Battery arose from his work in russia at the same timeHalstead is very standardized they both work and differ in their makings and conceptualizationsNeuropsych was ramped up in terms of a profession through the great wars and the great depression which culminated in psychological ailments like shell shock battle fatigue and eventually PTSDVeterans Administration pushed for the trainingWars in general provide work for CNs The Boulder meeting created the Boulder model standardizing the clinical branch of psychology to the treatment of mental illness in a scientistpractitioner modelClinical Neuropsychologist a professional psychologist who apples principles of assessment and intervention based upon the scientific study of human behaviour as it relates to normal and abnormal functioning of the CNSDouble Dissociation Technique a research method whereby lesions have opposite or dissimlar effects on two distinct cognitive functions it was developed to help determine when
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