Textbook Notes (368,122)
Canada (161,660)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYC39H3 (201)
Chapter 1

PSYC39 Chapter 1.docx

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David Nussbaum

Chapter 1: 1) Personal, Interpersonal and Community Reinforcement Model a. Cognitive social learning theory of crime b. AKA general personality and social psychology of criminal coduct c. Following factors influence decision to commit crime (historical & immediate factors): i. Immediate situation (temptations, facilitators, inhibitors, stressors) ii. Attitudes supportive of crime iii. History of criminal beh iv. Balance of costs/rewards 4 crime v. Presence of social support 4 crime vi. Community (family, social economic factors) vii. Interpersonal (family/child relations, attachment, neglect, abuse, ties 2 criminals) viii. Personal (early conduct disorder, biological factors like temperament) ix. Consequences 2) Farrington’s Theory a. Long-term risk factors (biological, individual, family, peer, school, community & society) b. INTERACT WITH c. Short-term risk factors (energizing/inhibiting factors, opportunity, anti-social tendency, cognitive processes) d. Influence behavior  Across countries: o Robbery, theft, incest = CRIMINAL  Canada – intent – criminal responsibilyt  Determinants of Crime: o Distal (historical) o Proximal (immediate/situational)  Meta-Analysis = weighted average of effect size o 2 dichotomous variables:  Phi correlation  Odds ratio o 1 continuous + 1 dichotomous variable:  Area under receiver operating curve characteristic  Cohen’s D  B1 coefficient  Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) = technique for measuring the accuracy of risk assessments by examining false positives and true positives across decision thresholds o Less influenced by decision thresholds and base rate - a standard technique for comparing across risk measures Andrews:  Central 8 risk/need factors: o Big 4 = major causal variables = major risk factors = 1 order correlates of crime  1) History of anti-social beh  2) Antisocial personality pattern  3) Antisocial cognition  4) Antisocial associates o Remaining 4 = moderate risk factors, but not major correlates  5) Family/Marital  6) School/Work  7) Leisure/Recreation  8) Substance Abuse  Minor risk factors = 2 order correlates of crime o Personal and emotional distress o Major mental disorder o Physical health issures o Fear of punishment o Physical conditions o Low IQ o Social class of origin o Seriousness of current offence o Other factors unrelated to offending **Antisocial attitudes and antisocial associates are more highly correlated w/ criminal conduct than social class/mental health.  RISKS and NEEDS Assessment modelled after major risk factors o Used to identify level of criminal risk for:  Decisions purposes  Specific treatment targets  Treatment planning o Types:  1) Wisconsin Model  Offender Intake Assessment (AKA Dynamic Factor Identification Analysis) = used by CSC (federal) – based on Wisconsin Model  2) Level of Service Inventory Substance Abuse:  Substance abuse = moderate risk factor = modest effect sizes thru intervention  Federal offenders: o 52% = regular drug use; 62% regular alcohol use o 50% = used alcohol/drugs b4 crime o 68% = substance abuse warranting intervention  Alcohol  interpersonal conflict o Assaults o Homicides  Drugs  acquisitive violence o Robbery  Provincial Systems o 1) Less than 2 years o 2) Community Sentences  Fines  Community service  Probation o 3) Young offender services  Pre-trial supervision  Community & custody sentences  Extrajudicial sanctions program o *Also acts as remand centres where ppl wait until receiving sentences of 2 yrs/more  Federal systems o 2 or more years  Some sex offenders are given sentences of less than 2 years + Long-Term Offender status  community supervision up to 10 yrs by federal parole officer after release from provincial jail  Ontario = superjail model  Social workers = more common in provincial Crime Trends:  1991 peak with declin
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