Educational achievement: The learning of valuable skills and knowledge.
Educational attainment: The number of years of schooling successfully completed or, for higher
learning, the degrees or certificates earned.
Assortative mating: Marriage partners are selected so that spouses are similar on various
criteria of social rank.
Meritocracy: A social hierarchy in which rank corresponds to individual capacities fairly tested
against a common standard.
Social exclusion: Achieved by creating barriers that restrict certain opportunities or positions to
members of one group.
Credential inflation: Occurs when it takes ever more certificates or degrees to qualify for a
Professionalization: Occurs to the degree that certain levels and types of schooling are
established as criteria for gaining access to an occupation.
Cultural Capital: The stock of learning and skills that increases the chance of securing a superior
Pedagogic Violence: Bourdieu’s term for application by teachers of punishments intended to
discourage deviation from the dominate culture.
Reproduction of the existing stratification system: Social processes that ensure that offspring
enter a rank or class similar or identical to that of their parents.
Hidden Curriculum: School teaches obedience to authority and conformity to cultural norms.
Schools perform two main factors: they homogenize young people by socializing them into a
shared culture and they sort young people into different levels o