Textbook Notes (363,472)
Canada (158,372)
Sociology (1,053)
SOCA01H3 (480)

Health & Medicine Textbook 2.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

Black death originated in asia and spread through trade routes killed a third of Europes population o Cause of the plague was a bacillos that spread from lice to rats to peopleLife expectancythe average age at death of the members ofa population o Canadas83 for women o 78 for menHealthThe ability of an individual to achieve his potential and to respond positively to the challenges of the environment The basic resources of health are income shelter and food Rate of illness and death are examined to measure health of populationJeanne Louise Clement died at 1997 at age of 122 oldest ageSince 1840 life expectancy has grown by 25 years per decadeIn2006 highest life expectancy was 82 years in Japan and by 2050 it is expected to be 92 yearsSwaziland has shortest life expectancy of 33 years and in other subsaharan African countrieslife expectancy is lower than 50 years 3 social causes of illness and death are o Human Enironmental factors How environment are shaped for human activity Social class occupation and nationality correspond to different sorroundings in which people work and live Some environment factors good health while others impose added risk Environmental racism also contributes to lower health eg Dumping industrial chemicals Inuits have 10 times more contaminated breast milk o Lifestyle factorssmoking alcohol and drug use poor diet lack of exercise and social isolationDeath of a spouse also increases the risk Unmarried spouses have social isolation and are more likely to die prematurely o Factors related to Public Health Care systemslack of public health and health care system are associated with lower life expectancy and illnessPublic health systemcomprimises government programs that ensure access to clean drinking water basic sewage and sanitation services and inoculation against infectious diseases Composed of nations clinicshospitals and other facilities to ensure health HIVAIDS is leading cause of death in urban Haiti and sub Saharan AfricaInfant mortalitynumber of deaths before the age of one for every 1000 live births in a population in one year People with low income die at a younger age Poverty is associated with smoking alcohol consumption obescity physical inactivity but behavioural factors are weak predictor of health status compared to socioeconomic factors 5 reasons for deteriorating health as we move down the class hierarchy are o High stressinability to cope with itpeople in lower class experience high stress because of their deprived and difficult living condition also live and work in dangerous and unpleasant conditions o Differences is the earliest stages of development that have life long consequencesequalities of the start of life eg Poor circumstances during pregnancy such as poor nutrition can affect health in later life
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