Chapter 4 Notes
ProfessorMalcolm Mac Kinnon
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Chapter 4: Socialization
Socialization: is the process by which people learn their culture – including norms,
values, and roles – and become aware of themselves as they interact with others.
A role is the behaviour expected of a person occupying a particular position in
Emotional development requires affectionate cradling.
Self: consists of your ideas and attitudes about who you are.
Id: according to Freud, is the part of the self that demands immediate gratification.
Superego: according to Freud, is a part of the self that acts as a repository of
Ego: according to Freud, is a psychological mechanism that balances the conflicting
needs of the pleasure seeking id and the restraining superego.
Unconscious: according to Freud, is the part of the self that contains repressed
memories we are not normally aware of.
I: according to Mead, is the subjective and impulsive aspect of the self that is
present from birth.
Me: according to Mead, is the objective component of the self that emerges as people
communicate symbolically and learn to take the role of the other.
Significant Others: are people who play important roles in the early socialization
experiences of children.
Generalized Other: according to Mead, is a person’s image of cultural standards
and how they apply to him or her.
Primary Socialization: is the process of acquiring the basic skills needed to
function in society during childhood. Primary Socialization usually takes place in a
Secondary Socialization: is socialization outside the family after childhood.
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