BIO220H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Antimicrobial Resistance, Dna Replication, Antibiotics

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20 Apr 2012
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BIO220 Lab Chapter 2 Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance Notes
Bactericidal antiobiotics inhibit DNA replication and repair, impeding synthesis of
cell walls and membranes
Bacteriostatic antiobiotics impede replication of bacteria by interfering with protein
synthesis
Bacteria express genes that reduce its sensitivity to antibiotics
Anti-biotic resistance genes interfere with antibiotic’s ability to successfully bind to
target site of bacteria, producing enzymes that inactivate the antibiotic, or reducing
the uptake of the antibiotic by the bacteria
Antibiotic-resistance genes obtained by mutation or horizontal gene transfer
To control resistance: reduce amount of antibiotics prescribed
Mutations that confer antibiotic resistance have associated fitness costs, such as
reduced growth rate
Escherichia coli
Antibiotics to treat infections of harmful E.coli (streptomycin)
E.coli evolved resistance to streptomycin via point mutation in rpsL gene
Notes from “Persistence of antibiotic resistant bacteria”
Resistance mutations unusually confer a fitness cost, alter and impair targets that
perform essential functions
Some resistance mutations confer no measurable cost
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