Feb. 27, 2013
tragedy, satyr play, comedy
CHORUS: ex. libation bearers, bacchi…ec.) these titles are tragedies… names comes from identity of
chrous of women bringing wine… bacchi is chrous of bacchanti…
in satire play, chorus was a group of satire. follower of god dionysus. there are some visual evidence
giving clues. dressed as animals. black figure vase… on red attic krater, there are chorus members
dressed up as chickens with auloi playing a flute.
there are indication that in the archaic period, chorus number wore masks. often animal maks are satire
mask. depicts tragedy or chroal performance.. line between early chorus or late tragedy… is this
depiction of actual drama or depiction of mythical events sung by a chorus.
choral songs that has the oriign of tragedy. greeks were interested in origin of tragedy.
TRAGOIDOS 'goat song'> tragoi 'he goat'** might be reference to satir who acompanied dionysus.
worship of dionysus and following of satire remained key part of dramatic performances.
they were not happy songs… mythic stories and sad ones as well.. herodotus tells us that in the early 6th
C there were tragic chrous caled RHAPSODOI described as singer of homeric songs (mythical epics)
RAPSODOS were professional recitors who were traveling around. combo of the two that tragedy begins.
in the one hand origin of trageyd role of the chorus DITHYRAMB*
Arion going describe herodotus of dithyramb.. gives description of arion. entry under his name said to
first put together chorus and sing dithyramb and decall not only invent kind of song but name it the
choral performance, DITHYRAMNB. first reitation called the Satyre* connection between Rapsody and
musician and arion's creation o the dithyrambic genre. he created a CYCLIC CHORUS 50 men dance
around in a circle* (notice that dancing ground was performced in circular motion)
Satyres (ROWDY) are wild creatures. comes up in vase painting… has comeidc actors. these are always
connected to tragedy… TRAGEDY (SOMBRE) a comedy of satire but a formal tragedy but both of these
elements of the sombre and rowdy were important for venerating dionysus. this was CATHARISIS:
relaease of emotions and dangerous of emotion acehived by watching a trageic performance. evocation
of pity and fear in the minds of the audience. by watching dramatic over the top events, both trageic
and rowdy, you would release all the pent up emotions. feeling with characters and swept along the
story. destructive emotion will cause problems in the social life and give strange political ideas…these
were release valve. by watching violent emotions wehter serious or cheerful, watching emotions played
out by chorus, those urges would be satified inside of you so when you get out in soceity you will be ok
singing solo… soloist was the chorus leader. responsible for leading chorus directing chorus and prolly
taught the song and routine. its natural to step out and become the soloist. these kind of performances
are called LYRICAL TRAGEDY. story sung by chorus and sung solo by singer but ts not the tragedy. this
was particulaly associated with the peloponese (corinth) arion invented dihramb. and Sicyon, passage by
herodous about the rahsody. connection of pelopoonese stays because most of chroal was written in dialect DORIAN* dialect of greek
spoken in the peloponeese (sparta thus retained chhoral section in later trageyd.
best outline of development comes from aristotle in politics. (slide). he talks about tragedy and comey.
comedy game from Phallic songs. tragedy invovled men… many changes stopped… also shrunk size of
chorus and gave dialouge… because tragedy development of saytre play, there were short plots and
comeic dialogue to its full dignity. when dialoue introduced, nature discovered its proper meter. group
in talking to eachother use iambic lines. dophovlrd…
over time main chrous and meters ..rype of poetry and type sung recited were changed and
differentiated and set them apart as compoents of performance. in modern musical theatre, cue often
aulous player… clue that you were moving from dance… to serioues or out of dialgoue into a song was
how the rhym of the poetry changed or just the Rhythm* remember rhtmye changed
Diog. Laer… talks about few clues to tragedy… actors old days there was one solist. (look at slide)
Thespsis… what hes saying is that chorus was the only actress. later thespis created actor and thus
tragedy had chorus and 3 actors. actors played all parts.
gves clues about comeptition. contended at the dionysia. and festival of chytri. last pla y was satiric
drama and four together was called tetralogy* he gives clue of the tragic tetralogy. there would be 3
trageyd performeced one after another and a satire play. it took hours. greek tragedy perofmred today
is 80-90 min. but 3 together with satire play is a long day of entertainment.
ACTOR= HYPOKRITOS. as we are told, this was invented from Thespis. invented as additional peromer
togive break for the chorus and also give break.
Plut (slide) end of the 7th C, thespis begins to develop tragedy and attract most ppl in novelty… matter
of competitive contest. he lightweight linen mask idea of playing with the mask…several character in
one performance was introduced by Thespsis* with the mask, the actor was able to go off stage change
mask with somewhat different…. (3 worked) the point that sophocles introduced three… greeks were
confident they achieved perfect package. greeks are traditional bunch and keep it that way)
ask projects actor's voices* introduction of mask prolly help magnify voices. mouth had tubelike shape
THESPSIS (535 BC) first performance. he soon followed by 2 other athenian tragic writers. not much
writers survives but CHOERILOS and PHRYNICHOS worked in 520s. Choerils (150 drama good at writing
satire plays… origin of the idea of 3 tragedy grouped together… so with 150, there are 50 performances
of satire plays) Phry was student of thespsis won dramtic victor in 511 BC in aThens. he was particularly
famous for melodies which indicate choral side of things were still important in this period. he was the
first person who introduced female character** phrynichos' most famous for his perofmance is the play
called the SAKC OF MILETUS 494 BC a year after the actual historical event which Xerxes perisan sacked
miletus in 495 BC. this perofmrance broke the older diarambic mythical subject matter andn ot
contemporary event. handling contemporary event wasn’t bad… butathenians reacted strongly….
athenians deep greif… when he wrote play of fall of miletos… whole theatre so emotional and forbade
perfomance forever afer. emotion went too far and 1000 dramas was a large fine… he idd keep writing
dealing with persian. the PHOENISSAI staged in 476 BC a historical topic but we see in AESCYLUS' PERSAE
about persian women, later in middle part dealt with persian wars which were still living memory of
Chorus starts the play and idneify who they are in the aeschylus' persians (slide) they are guarding the
paalce sene in back at persia and xerxes, son of darius has gone off the hellas, off to war. very start, we
have the identity of chorus and scene and setting. introduced themess the idea of the king*** character of xerxes as king.. themeb of herodotus, topic of great greek concenr in the middle of the 5th C. no
surpirse it turned up here.
tragedy was traditional and formal. this is clear that the formalism of trageyd was interaction of actor
and chrus was clear. in the Persian, chorus with action… actor introduce prolouge. this outline setting of
the story. (actor starts play in his play agamemnon) whever introduce opening handed over to the next
character… back and fourth movement of chorus and soloist…. section of dailoge between 2 actor or
between actor and chrous movement of pace in tragedy was discussed in arisottle's poetics.
SATYRE PLAYS mythical events like agamemnon's return to troy… edipus… or case of persian war…
satyre plays riginal elemnt of dionysian… format kept of neessary component of realasing range of
emotion and balacne towards the audience. satrye plays were performed last* tetralogy 3 and satrye
play. served as final boost to lift audience out of tragic theme*
all 4 plays written by same writer. they will be fperofmred by same actors and chorus and fit together
ina story cycle. themeb of satyre play was mythical epics of heros with much more cheerful and
roudwdy tone. PRATINAS OF PHILUS was an early composer know nfor satyre plays near Sikyon.
there is a famous vase called a PRONOMOS VASE. itsa drawing unwraps the vase. (slide image) detail
scene.. depict troop of actor ready for satyre play.
on the left of the field, different actors and chorus members. in their costume carrying maskss… at
bottom there is a auloi players. at the top in the center, there is ornately dressed actor carrying mask.
dresed in fancy manner… (typical of actors and character in tragedy) middle is dionysus… women?
unclear perhaps a muse? grape wine… and wineof white are inscription of names.
identitfication gives an idea. on the write hand side, there are the rest of troop with satire and 3 more
actors… hercules, depicts old man.
surviving play from cyclops… exrcpt of opening play how it sound