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Chapter

ENG100H1 Chapter Notes -Nonsense Word, Counterpoint, Melodrama


Department
English
Course Code
ENG100H1
Professor
A Maurice

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Chapter 5 Listening to the Cinema: Film Sound
melodrama theatrical, literary, and cinematic narrative mode often centered on individual crises within the confines of family or
other social institutions, frequently characterized by clearly identifiable moral types, coincidences and reversals of fortune, and the
use of music (melos) to underscore the action
digital sound recording and reproducing sound through technologies that encode and decode it as digital information
synchronous sound (onscreen sound) sound that is recorded during a scene or that is synchronized with the filmed images; as used
by scholar Siegfried Kracauer, a term that describes sound that has a visible onscreen source, such as moving lips
asynchronous sound sound that does not have a visible onscreen source
onscreen sound sound with a visible onscreen source, such as when dialogue appears to come directly from speaker’s moving lips
offscreen sound a term used to distinguish diegetic sounds related to the action but whose source is not visible on the screen
parallelism an instance in which the soundtrack reinforces the image, such as synchronized dialogue or sound effects or a
voiceover that is consistent with what is displayed onscreen
counterpoint using sound to indicate a different meaning or association than the image
diegetic sound sound that has its source in the narrative world of the film, whose characters are presumed to be able to hear it
nondiegetic sound sound that does not have an identifiable source in the characters’ world and that consequently the characters
cannot sound
diegesis a term that refers to the world of the film’s story (its characters, places, and events), including not only what is shown but
also what is implied to have taken place; it comes from the Greek word meaning “narration”
source music diegetic music; music whose source is visible onscreen
semidiegetic sound (internal diegetic sound) sound that is neither strictly diegetic nor nondiegetic, such as certain voiceovers that
can be construed as the thoughts of a character and thus as arising from the story world
sound designer the individual responsible for planning and directing the overall sound of a film through to the final mix
sound recording the recording of dialogue and other sound that takes simultaneously with the filming of a scene
clapboard a device marked with the scene and take number that is filmed at the beginning of each take; the sound of its being
snapped is recorded in order to synchronize sound recordings and camera images
boom a long pole used to hold a microphone above the actors to capture sound while remaining outside the frame, handled by a
boom operator
direct sound sound captured directly from its source
reflected sound recorded sound that is captured as it bounces from the walls and sets; it is usually used to give a sense of space;
opposed to direct sound
production sound mixer the sound engineer on the production set; also called a sound recordist
postproduction sound sound recorded and added to a film in the postproduction phase
sound editing combining music, dialogue, and effects tracks to interact with image track in order to create rhythmic relationships,
establish connections between sound and onscreen source, and smooth or mark transitions; performed by a sound editor
sound bridge term for sound carried over a picture transition, or a sound belonging to coming scene playing before image changes
spotting the process of determining where music and effects will be added to a film
foley artists a member of the sound crew who generates live synchronized sound effects such as footsteps, the rustle of clothing,
or a key turning in a lock, while watching the projected film; named after their inventor, Jack Foley, foley tracks are eventually
mixed with other audio tracks
postsynchronous sound sound recorded after the actual filming and then synchronized with onscreen sources
automated dialogue replacement (ADR) a process during which actors watch the film footage and re-record their lines to be
dubbed into the soundtrack; also known as looping
looping an image or sound recorded on a loop of film to be replayed and layered
walla a nonsense word spoken by extras in a film to approximate the sound of a crowd during sound dubbing
room tone the aural properties of a location that are recorded and then mixed in with dialogue and other tracks to achieve a more
realistic sound
sound mixing an important stage in the postproduction of a film that takes place after the image track, including the credits, is
complete; the process by which all the elements of the soundtrack, including music, effects, and dialogue, are combined and
adjusted; also called re-recording
mix the combination by the sound mixer of separate soundtracks into a single master track that will be transferred onto the film
print together with the image track to which it is synchronized
sound reproduction sound playback during a film’s exhibition
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