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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 - Nutrition

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University of Toronto St. George
Sarah Wakefield

Chapter 8 - What is nutrition? Food choices  Taste and Enjoyment  Most important consideration  10,000 taste buds in the mouth  Genetics play a part in our decisions  Texture – 30% of adults don’t like slippery foods  Preferences start in early life and people become resistant to change  Culture and Environment  What foods are available/accessible to us in certain environments influence what we regularly eat or not eat  Variety of food choices, size and shape of plates, packing, type and amount visible  Social Reasons and Trends  Eating dinner with other people increases the size of your meal by 40%  More people present makes you eat more  Treads increase certain food intakes  2005 – Americans spent $51billion on organic/natural food  Weight concerns, body image and health benefits  Perception of food can be influenced by your state of health  The more award you are of health effects of food, the more likely you will try to improve your eating habits  Functional foods – oatmeal, salt, GMO foods with added nutrients, phytochemical fortified foods (orange juice with calcium)  Advertising  $10-15 billion on food advertising annually - $700 million on breakfast cereal, candy and gum. $500 million on soft drinks.  Advertising can increase consumption – 1994 Got Milk commercial featured celebrities drinking milk and boosted sales by 1.5billion pounds  Time, convenience, cost  Working American women spend less than 15mins preparing a meal  17, 000 coffee shops, carts and kiosks across US  1970ss – Americans spent 25% on eating out. Today – 45%  Fast food leads to weight gain problems that have long term costs - 36% of annual health care  Lowering the cost of fresh fruit, vegetables and lower fat snacks improve consumption of nutritious foods.  Habits and emotions  Emotional food intakes – stress, depression or joy Nutrition  Study of food and the nutrients needed to sustain life and reproduce  Explores the way food nourishes the body + affects health  1900s – concept of essential nutrients  How food is digested, absorbed, transported, metabolized and stored in the body  How much we need of each nutrient, factors influencing needs, what happens if we don’t consume enough  Good nutrition – reduces risk of 4 of the top 10 leading causes of death in US  Heart disease, cancer, stroke and diabetes Nutrients  Nutrients are building blocks needed to replace dead cells  6 categories  Carbohydrates, lipids, protein, vitamins, minerals and water  10% of plant foods are made of carbohydrates, lipids, protein, vitamins and minerals - the other 90% is water  Animal foods contain 60% water – 40% protein, lipids, vitamins and minerals  Carbohydrates, lipids, protein, vitamins  Most complex  Organic nutrients – they contain carbon  Minerals, water  Not organic – no carbon  Nutrients are essential and must come from food – they cannot be made by the body  Non-essential nutrients – eg vitamin D comes from sun exposure instead  Carbohydrates, lipids, protein  Energy yielding nutrients  Energy – capacity to do work, source of heat  During digestion and metabolism the bonds are broken to release energy  Energy used for digestion + absorption of food, muscle contractions, fuel for heart, synthesize new cells etc  Energy not used is stored for later  Alcohol provides energy but is not a nutrient  Carbohydrates (4 kilocalories per gram), lipids (9 kilocalories per gram), protein (4 kilocalories per gram), alcohol (7 kilocalories per gram),  Kilocalorie  Amount of energy in food  Amount of energy needed to raise temperature of one kilogram of water C°  Same as the Calorie (C) found on labels  Calorie(C) =/= calorie (c) – 1000 calories (lower case) is equivalent to 1 kilocalorie  Carbohydrates, lipids, protein, water  Macronutrients – larger amounts to function  Vitamins, minerals  Micronutrients – smaller amounts to function  Carbohydrates  Main source of energy  Found in glucose – primary source of energy for red blood cells and brain cells  Bread, cereal, legumes, nuts, fruits, vegetables and diary products  Lipids  Fats (triglycerides), oils, phospholipids, sterols  Insoluble in water  More concentrated than carbohydrates  Contains less oxygen and water  Body stores excess energy in triglycerides – makes up adipose tissue beneath the skin and around organs  Margarine, butter, oils, animal products  Proteins  Amino acids – synthesize, grow and maintain tissues in body  Muscles, bone and skin tissues  Communication between brain and the body  Immune system  Enzymes  Meats, dairy products and legumes  Vitamins + minerals  Help regulate metabolism  Without these we aren’t able to use the other ones (Carbohydrates, lipids, protein)  Vitamins – coenzymes – chemical reactions in body  13 vitamins classified via solubility  Water soluble – vitamin C + 8 vitamin B – absorbed and excreted, consumed daily  Insoluble – Vitamin A, D, E and K –
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