INI 300Formal and Informal Reports Summary Page

9 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Innis College Courses
Viktoria Jovanovic- Krstic

Formal and Informal Reports: Summary Sheet Formal Reports: • Made up of preliminary and proper sections. Preliminary=Title Page, Memo/Letter of Transmittal, Table of Contents, and Executive Summary. Proper part of the report: INTRODUCTION, RESULTS OF THE STUDY (MADE UP OF THE RESULTS & DISCUSSION) CONCLUSIONS, and RECOMMENDATIONS What goes in: INTRODUCTION: • Background Information • Purpose statement • Scope of the study • Relevance of the study (comparison/contrast of your eight secondary sources in about three paragraphs of written text. Look for similarities and differences between the articles; try to compartmentalize the focus of each article so that you can have something to compare and contrast) • Methodology • Definitions (if you are using any) RESULTS OF THE STUDY Divided into two parts: 1) Results: Made up of the data that you collected from primary research. This section often includes charts, graphs, and/or illustrations as well as bullets and paragraphs. 2) Discussion: This section interprets and analyses the research findings; it presents a discussion of your findings and compares those results with your secondary research. This section is often made up of a number of smaller sections introduced in the form of talking heading (descriptive headings) which help the reader navigate from section to section. The discussion does not focus on all of the material presented in the Results section; it does focus on what you consider to be the most interesting, important and relevant data which you collected and from which you can draw reasonable assumptions based on the secondary research. CONCLUSIONS This section summarizes the findings in one sentence points. The conclusion repeats, infers, and pulls together the points made in the RESULTS OF THE STUDY section, particularly the Discussion. This section does not introduce NEW information. RECOMMENDATIONS The section makes specific suggestions about what action to take as a result of the findings and the discussion. Recommendations are typically numbered for clarity. Some reports include suggestions for future meetings as well. Appendix: This section includes at least two parts: Works Cited page (where you list your secondary sources) and a copy of the survey questionnaire you distributed to the respondents. Informal Reports: Contain all of the necessary parts that formal documents contain; they do not contain preliminary data (title page, etc.) Take one of three forms: E-mail, Memo, Letter Two types of informal reports: 1. Informational Reports: answer questions and provide information without analysis. Provide information regarding routine activities; the information in these reports tells readers what they need to know. These reports are organized into three sections: Introductions, Findings, Summary/Conclusion. a. Types of informational reports: Periodic report, Situational Report, Incident Report. i. Periodic Report: Written regularly and describes recurring activities by recording data and outcomes. Typical in fields such as education, nursing, health sciences ii. Situational Report: Written in response to two specific types of non-recurring situations (1) business trips or conferences and (2) Progress of a continuing project. Typical headings for Progress Reports include: Background, Work Completed, Work to be Completed, Anticipated Problems. Usually close by stating when the next Progress report is due. iii. Incident Reports: Documents problems, unusual events, changes from routine events,. This type of report provides complete and accurate details of an incident, answering the questions , Who? When? What? Where? How? 2. Investigative Reports: Evaluates problems or situations and presents facts based on evaluation. Typically made up of Introduction, Findings, Conclusions and potentially Recommendations. a. Three main categories: Recommendation Reports , Justification Reports and Feasibility Reports i. Recommendation reports are analytical; they recommend an action, often in response to a specific problem. ii. Justification reports are analytical reports that justify the need for a purchase, investment, policy change, or hiring. The justification report can be presented directly or indirectly. 1. Direct justification report: a. Introduces the problem b. Presents the recommendation, action, or solution c. Justifies the recommendation by highlighting advantages and benefits and explaining it in more detail. This section takes into detail the benefits and the advantages of applying the recommendation usually by comparing it to other potential but obviously not chosen options. d. Ends with a summary that refers to the action to be taken 2. Indirect justification report: a. Introduces the problem and provide details that convince readers of its seriousness—do not reveal the recommendation. b. Discuss other measures or alternatives under descriptive headings, starting with the least likely and ending with your recommendation. c. Show that the advantages of your solution outweigh the disadvantages. d. Summarizes the action to be taken and ask for authorization. iii. Feasibility reports evaluate projects or alternatives to determine if they are worthwhile for the company. The process for writing a feasibility reports is: 1. Announce the decision to be made and list its alternatives 2. Describe the problem necessitating the decision 3. Evaluate positive and negative aspects of the project, including potential problems 4. Calculate costs and discuss the time frame General Breakdown of parts of a recommendation and feasibility report In the introduction, indicate that the document that follows is a feasibility report (or whatever it is called). Instead of calling the report by name (which might not mean anything to most readers), you can indicate its purpose.Also, provide an overview of the contents of the report. For some feasibility reports, you'll also be able to discuss the situation and the requirements in the introductions. If there is little to say about them, you can merge them with the introduction, or make the introduction two paragraphs long. Technical Background. Some feasibility reports may require some technical discussion in order to make the rest of the report meaningful to readers. The dilemma with this kind of information is whether to put it in a section of its own or to fit it into the comparison sections where it is relevant. For example, a discussion of power and speed of laptop computers is going to necessitate some discussion of RAM, megahertz, and processors. Should you put that in a section that compares the laptops according to power and speed? Should you keep the comparison neat and clean, limited strictly to the comparison and the conclusion? Maybe all the technical background can be pitched in its own section—either toward the front of the report or in an appendix. Background on the Situation. For many feasibility reports, you'll need to discuss the problem, need, or opportunity that has brought about this report. If there is little that needs to be said about it, this information can go in the introduction. Requirements and Criteria.Acritical part of feasibility and recommendation reports is the discussion of the requirements you'll use to reach the final decision or recommendation. If you're trying to recommend a laptop computer for use by employees, there are likely to be requirements concerning size, cost, hard-disk storage, display quality, durability, and battery function. If you're looking into the feasibility of providing every UofT student with an ID on the UofT computer network, you'd need define the basic requirements of such a program—what it would be expected to accomplish, problems that it would have to avoid, and so on. If you're evaluating the recent program of free bus transportation inAustin, you'd need to know what was expected of the program and then compare its actual results to those requirements. Requirements can be defined in several basic ways: • Numerical values: Many requirements are stated as maximum or minimum numerical values. For example, there may be a cost requirement—the laptop should cost no more than $900. • Yes/no values: Some requirements are simply a yes-no question. Does the laptop come equipped with a modem? Is the ca
More Less

Related notes for INI300H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.