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PHY100H1 (36)
Chapter

Electricity and Magnetism

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Department
Physics
Course
PHY100H1
Professor
Vatche Deyirmenjian
Semester
Summer

Description
Magnetism and Electricity! What are moving electrons and charges? Electricity is related to charges, and both electron and protons carries a charge. They both have the same amount of charge for each particle, but they are opposite in sign. Electron carries negative charges, while protons carries positive charges. The protons are located at the centre of the atoms, and concentrated in a small area called nucleus. The protons are basically trapped inside the nucleus and cannot escape. The electrons are located outside the nucleus and move around orbits, as a result, since protons are trapped electrons are the particles that generate electricity. Flowing Electrons! With electricity, current is a measure of the amount of charge transferred over a period of time. Current is a flow of electrons, or individual negative charges. When charge flows, it carries energy that can be used to do work. Scientists measure current with units called amperes. www.notesolution.comCurrent and Heat One of the results of current is the heating of the conductor. When an electric stove heats up, its because of the flow of current. The electrons have a mass (however small), and when they move through the conductor, there are collisions that produce heat. The more electrons bumping into the atoms of the conductor, the more heat is created, so higher current generally means greater heat. Scientists used to think that the flow of current always heated up the object, but with modern superconductors, that is not always true, or at least not as true as with normal materials. Superconducting materials seem to have less interaction between atoms and current, so the moving charges lose much less energy. Can you separate charges? Yes! Removing electrons would leave the atom with more positive than negatives, and this is what we call an ion (a charged atom) Conversely, it will turn into a negative ion. Friction is another way to separate charges Thought Experiment: Have you ever had a science lab where you rub fur on glass rods, or try to make static cling? When you do that rubbing, you are actually rubbing www.notesolution.com
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