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Motivation: factors that energize, direct, or sustain behaviour. It affects physical factors or psychological
Motivational states are energizing (activate or arouse behaviours), directive (guide behaviour into
satisfying goals or needs), help people persist (until goals are reached or needs are satisfied), and
differ in strength (depending on internal and external factors.
Need: a state of biological or social deficiencies within the body (failure to satisfy the need leads to
psychosocial or physical impairment.
Need hierarchy : Maslow’s ar rangement of needs, in which basic survival needs are lowest and
personal growth needs are highest in terms of ultimate pr iority.
Self-actualization: a state that is achieved when one’s personal dreams and aspirations have been
The greater the need, the greater the motivation to satisfy it.
Drive: psychological state that motivates an organism to satisfy its needs.
Arousal : term to describe psychological activation, such as increased brain activity, automatic
responses, sweating, or muscle tension. Arousal not only motivates us to satisfy basic needs, but
an optimal amount of arousal is also desirable on its own.
Homeostasis : the tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibr ium.
Incentive : external stimuli that motivate behaviour (we tend to be more highly motivated to obtain
things of value)
Yerkes-Dobson law: a psychological principle that dictates that behavioural efficiency increases with an
optimum point, after which it decreases wit h increasing arousal.
Extrinsic motivation: motivation to perform an activity because of the external goals toward which that
activity is directed. Extrinsic rewards undermine only behaviour that is intrinsically rewarding.
Intrinsic motivation: motivation to per form an activity because of the value or pleasure associated with
that activity, rather than for an apparent biological goal or pur pose
Creativity: the capacity to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in
solving problems, communicating wit h others, or entertaining ourselves and others.