ch.7 textbook notes: only the important info you need to know for exam

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2 Dec 2010
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Psych Notes: Chapter 7
Memory
- Memory: capacity of nervous system to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge, allowing
organisms to benefit from experience (often incomplete, biased, or distorted)
Basic Stages of Memory
- Modal memo model: Sensory input Æ sensory memo Æ short term memoÆ long term memo
(pg.254)
- Sensory Memo is Brief
o Lights, smells, odours
o Sensory memory: memory for sensory info that is stored briefly in its original sensory
form
Iconic memory: visual sensory memo (1/3 of a second)
Echoic memory: auditory sensory memo
= experience world as continuous stream instead of jerky pictures
- Short Term Memory is Active
o Info that has been attended to is passed from sensory stores to short term memory
(STM) : holds info in awareness for a brief period (immediate memo t 20 sec)
o Memory Span and Chunking
STM: ~ 7 items +/- 2
x Varies among individuals & IQ (some ~ 4 items)
Chunking: organizing info into meaningful units (relies on long term memo)
o Working Memory
STM is an Active processing system that keeps info available so that it can be
used for activities such as problem solving, reasoning, and comprehension
x Central executive: presides over interactions between subsystems and
long-term memo (the boss!) / filters info to be placed in long term
memo // & retrieves info from long term memo as needed// relies on
the 2 subcomponents below
x phonological loop: encodes auditory info //active whenever you read,
speak, or repeat words to yourself in order to remember them(inner
voice) Æ words are processed by how they sound rather than what they
mean
x visuo-spatial sketchpadWÀ]µo]v(}ll}i[(µUÁZZÇ
located
- Long Term Memory is Relatively Permanent
o Relatively permanent storage of info // nearly limitless
o Distinguishing long-term memo from short term memo
Duration and capacity
Serial position effect: better recall of early and late items
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Document Summary

Memory: capacity of nervous system to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge, allowing organisms to benefit from experience (often incomplete, biased, or distorted) Modal memo model: sensory input  sensory memo  short term memo long term memo (pg. 254) Sensory memo is brief: lights, smells, odours, sensory memory: memory for sensory info that is stored briefly in its original sensory. Iconic memory: visual sensory memo (1/3 of a second) form. S = experience world as continuous stream instead of jerky pictures. Info that has been attended to is passed from sensory stores to short term memory (stm) : holds info in awareness for a brief period (immediate memo j 20 sec: memory span and chunking. N varies among individuals & iq (some ~ 4 items) S chunking: organizing info into meaningful units (relies on long term memo: working memory.

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