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Chapter 13

Chapter 13- Disorder of the Mind - Textbook Reading

Course Code
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 13 - Disorder of the Mind and Body
Psychopathology Æ Disorder of the mind
How are mental disorders conceptualized and classified?
- Many behaviours that are considered normal in one setting might be considered deviant in
other settings
o In Asia Æ Spirit talking to you consider a great honour, where in Canada it might
considered to be auditory hallucinations
o Criteria are important to consider in determining whether behaviour represents
psychopathology Æ deviate from cultural norms? Behaviour maladaptive? Behaviour
causing the individual personal distress?
- Mental Disorders are classified into Categories
o To investigate the etiology (Factors that contributes to the development) and possible
treatments of mental disorders Æ need a way to group these disorders into meaningful
o Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) Æ classified
psychopathology based on groups of symptoms that occurred together than presumed
o Multiaxial system Æ the system used in the DSM that provides assessment along five
axes describing important mental health factors
Axis 1 t clinical disorders and other conditions that may be a focus of clinical
attention (e.g. schizophrenia)
Axis 2 t mental retardation and personality disorders
Axis 3 t general medical conditions that may be relevant to mental disorders
(e.g. epilepsy)
Axis 4 t psychosocial and environmental problems that might affect the
diagnosis treatment and prognosis of mental disorders (e.g. legal problems ..
Axis 5- global assessment of function Æ scale rated from 1 to 100 (1 danger of
hurting self or others or 100 meaning superior functioning in a wide range of
- Mental disorder must be assessed before diagnosis
o Assessment Æ Æu]v]}v}(}v[uvo]v}}]agnose possible
mental illness so that a diagnosis could be made for the appropriate treatment
o The course and possible outcomes Æ prognosis
o Method of assessment sometimes depends on how a person comes in contact with
mental health workers or in ER Æ using mental status exam (evaluation of personal
grooming, eye contact, tremors or twitches, mood, speech, thought content, memory)
o First step Æ clinical interview Æ l}µ}v[}v]]}vvÁZµZ
Interviewer must express empathy, build rapport quick, and non judgemental
- Structured vs. unstructured interview
o Unstructured interview Æ topics of discussion varying as the interview probes different
Guided by past experience and beliefs
x Flexible but idiosyncratic Æ no two unstructured interviews are likely to
reveal same information Æ too dependent on the interviewer

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o Structured interview Æ standardized question that are asked in the same order each
time Æ coded according to a predetermined formula Æ diagnoses are based on specific
patterns of responding Æ Structured Clinical Interview for DSM
Starts with general questions and precedes to question about symptoms Æ
useful for research and treatment Æ allows researchers to know that results are
applicable to other with the same disorder
- Behaviour assessments
o soµo]v(}u]}v}µo}]viµÇ}À]vPZo]v[ZÀ]}µ
o Another assessment method is neuropsychological testing Æ perform certain actions
that requires particular ability
- Psychological testing
o Beck Depression Inventory Æ used to assess symptoms of depression
o Minnesota Multiphastic Personality Inventory Æ questionnaire with then clinical scales
to indicates if someone has a particular disorder
Self-report assessment are problematic as people do not necessarily answer
honestly Æ this is countered by validity scales that measure the probability that
the person is being less than truthful or if the questions are answered in the
same manner each time
Criticized for not appropriate for use in other countries or with groups of poor,
elderly or minorities because the scores that are considered normal are based
on studies in which such people were unfairly represented Æ thus are used
solely on information gathering
Mental Disorders Have Many Causes Æ mainly that their behaviours are maladaptive and
interferes with some important aspects of their lives
- Psychological factors
o First edition of DSM was heavily influenced by Freudian psychoanalytic theory Æ mental
disorders were due to mostly unconscious conflicts that are often sexual in nature
dating back to childhood and triggered by later life experience by emotions or
unresolved conflicts associated with these events Æ reactions to environmental
conditions or as various defence mechanism Æ inner causes rather than external
o Traumatic events and less extremes circumstances could cause the problem as well
Family system model Æ diagnostic model that consider symptoms within an
individual as indicating problems within the family
x E.g. Genain quadruplets
o Developing profile of the family could be used to understand factors
relating to the disorder as well as determining whether the family is
likely to be helpful or de]uvo}Zo]v[}P]vZÇ
Sociocultural model Æ diagnostic model that views psychopathology as the
result of the interaction between individual and their culture Æ e.g.
schizophrenia is common among the lower socioeconomic family
- Cognitive-behavioural factors
o Abnormal behaviour is result of learned maladaptive cognitions
o Unconscious internal factors Æ behaviour approach is observable variable
E.g. classical conditioning Æ unconditioned stimulus produces an unconditioned
response Æ like Little Albert Æ fears are learned rather than innate

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

o Argued that mental disorders are the result of classical and operant conditioning Æ idea
that thoughts and beliefs should be consider as another type of behaviour that can be
studied empirically and that thoughts can become distorted and produce maladaptive
behaviours and emotion
Thought process are believed to be conscious Æ individual are award and can
be easily made aware that though give rise to maladaptive behaviours
- Biological Factors
o Used identical and fraternal twins and studying individuals who have been adopted have
showed that genetic factors have effects on mental health
o Also fetus are particularly vulnerable Æ mental disorders could be arise from prenatal
problems such as maternal illness, toxins Åexposures to those during developmental
stage also causes this as well Æ Æ all are affecting the central nervous system as well as
neurological dysfunctions to manifestation to mental disorders
o Use of imaging to identify brain regions associated with psychopathology showed how
subtle deficits might be associated with different mental disorders as well
Neuroanatomical mental disorders or neurotransmitters
- Integrating the factors involved in mental disorders
o Diathesis-stress model Æ proposes that a disorder may develop when an underlying
vulnerability is coupled with a precipitating event Æ e.g. predisposed conditions, like
genetic or environmental deflects coupled with stressful circumstances can tip the
scales Æ leading to mental illness to manifest
- The legal system has its own definition of psychopathology
o If the person is not responsible if at the time of the crime, at which a mental disorder
led to an inability to appreciate the criminality of the act or to an inability to conform to
the requirements of the law Æ not guilty by reason of mental disorder
E.g. John Hinckleys Jr. attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan Æ verdict of
not guilty by reason of insanity Æ revised now that the defendant must prove
that they are not sane at the time
Very rare Æ they are no longer held indefinitely but rather must be assessed
regularly by review board
Can Anxiety Be the Root of Seemingly Different Disorders? Æ Anxiety can prepare us for upcoming
events and motivates us to adapt to change Æ Anxiety disorder Æ disorder characterized by the
experience of excessive anxiety in the absence of true danger
- There are different types of anxiety disorders (only occurred twice in female than male)
often feel tense, anxious and apprehensive
depressed and ]]oµZÇv[}]}v}Z]]µ]}v
constant worry make falling asleep and staying asleep hard
attention span, concentration, problem solving and judgement might be
cause variety of somatic symptoms due to arousal of autonomic nervous system
Æ like increase in blood pressure and muscle tension or restless behaviours
exaggerated startle response like top tipping and fidgeting
chronic stress can reduce atrophy in hippocampus (learning and memory)
o Phobic disorder Æ Phobia (fear of specific object or situation Æ fear can be adaptive as
it can help us avoid certain danger Æ in phobias, fear is exaggerated to the actual
danger Æ phobias are classified based on object of fear
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