Exemplar models t there is no single best representation of a concept. Instead, all of the exemplars of
category membership form the concept. Exemplar models assume that experience forms fuzzy
representations of concepts because, in essence, there is no single representation.
Over time, we develop schemas about real life situations we encounter. These schemas about
sequences are referred to as scripts. Scripts allow us to make a series of inferences about the sequence
of events that arise in daily situations so that we know how to act in any given situation. Operate at the
unconscious and can lead to distortions in memory.
Elements of schemas: 1) common situations have consistent attributes 2) people have specific roles
within the situational context
Negative aspects of schemas: study t children asked to create an adult social evening with dolls and
many of them say that they would purchase alcohol and cigarettes.
Adaptive value of schemas t allow us to focus on the more important details of life.
Reasoning t evaluating information, arguments, and beliefs in order to draw conclusions.
Deductive reasoning - the task is to determine if a conclusion in a specific case can be drawn or deduced
from a set of more general initial premises. Often presented in the form of syllogisms, which are logical
arguments containing premises and a conclusion. Thus, in conditional syllogism, the argument is in the
form: if A is true, then B is true.
Categorical syllogism t logical argument contains two premises and a conclusion, which can be
determined to be either valid or invalid.
Determining general conclusions from specific instances is the basis of inductive reasoning. Using the
scientific method to discover general principles relies on inductive reasoning.
Normative models of decision making viewed humans as optimal decision makers, where as more
descriptive models have tried to account for the tendencies humans have to misinterpret and
misrepresent the probabilities underlying many decision making scenarios.
Expected utility theory t theory breaks down decision making into a computation of utility, an indication
of overall value, for each possible outcome in a decision making scenario. Expected utility theory
proposes that decisions ultimately boil down to a consideration of possible alternatives, with people
always choosing the most desirable alternative.
Heuristics- mental shortcuts or rules of thumb that people typically se during inductive reasoning and
decision making. Often occurs at the unconscious level.
Making a decision based on the most available answer t the one that comes most easily to mind t is
known as the availability heuristic. t Example: people wanting to drive instead of flying after 9/11
because of so many images of plane crashes in the media.