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PSY100H1 (1,839)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Notes

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Dread risks t although born of uncommon events, can have a profound impact on reasoning and
decision making t example t fear of flying after 9/11
Cognition t mental activity such as thinking or representing information
Analogical representations - have some characteristics of (and are therefore analogous to) actual
objects, such as maps reflecting the physical layout of geography.
Symbolic representations t most often are words or ideas, such as knowing what the word violin stands
for a musical object.
Visual imagery is associated with activity in perception-related areas of the brain. These areas are likely
responsible for providing the spatial aspects, such as size and shape, of analogical visual imagery.
When we retrieve information from memory, as when we recall a picture we recently saw in a
vÁUZv]}v}(Z]µ]v}µu]v[ÇoooZv]}vZÁ]v
our brain the first time we saw the picture.
Grouping things together based on shared properties, known as categorization, reduces the amount of
knowledge we must hold in memory and is therefore an effective way of thinking.
Concept refers to a class or category that includes some number of individuals or subtypes. Concepts
can also be mental representatives of categories such as a musical instruments, or fruits, or bachelors.
Defining attribute model: the idea that a concept is characterized by a list of features that is necessary
to determine if an object is a member of a category. (Bachelor t an unmarried male)
Defining attribute model suggests that a category is on an all-or-none basis, but in reality we often make
exceptions in our categorizations, letting members into groups even f they do not have all the attributes
or excluding them even if they have all the attributes.
Second, the defining attribute model suggests that all attributes of a category are equally salient in
terms of defining the given category. Research demonstrates not only that some attributes are more
important for defining membership than others.
Model posits that all members of a category are of equal membership t no one is a better fit than any
other.
Prototype models - within each category, some members of a particular category are more
representative or prototypical of that category than other members. A man in his 20s who dates a lot is
more prototypical of a bachelor than a 16 year old male.
Although prototype models allow for some additional flexibility, they do not always provide a clear
indication of what the prototype really is.
www.notesolution.com
Exemplar models t there is no single best representation of a concept. Instead, all of the exemplars of
category membership form the concept. Exemplar models assume that experience forms fuzzy
representations of concepts because, in essence, there is no single representation.
Over time, we develop schemas about real life situations we encounter. These schemas about
sequences are referred to as scripts. Scripts allow us to make a series of inferences about the sequence
of events that arise in daily situations so that we know how to act in any given situation. Operate at the
unconscious and can lead to distortions in memory.
Elements of schemas: 1) common situations have consistent attributes 2) people have specific roles
within the situational context
Negative aspects of schemas: study t children asked to create an adult social evening with dolls and
many of them say that they would purchase alcohol and cigarettes.
Adaptive value of schemas t allow us to focus on the more important details of life.
Reasoning t evaluating information, arguments, and beliefs in order to draw conclusions.
Deductive reasoning - the task is to determine if a conclusion in a specific case can be drawn or deduced
from a set of more general initial premises. Often presented in the form of syllogisms, which are logical
arguments containing premises and a conclusion. Thus, in conditional syllogism, the argument is in the
form: if A is true, then B is true.
Categorical syllogism t logical argument contains two premises and a conclusion, which can be
determined to be either valid or invalid.
Determining general conclusions from specific instances is the basis of inductive reasoning. Using the
scientific method to discover general principles relies on inductive reasoning.
Normative models of decision making viewed humans as optimal decision makers, where as more
descriptive models have tried to account for the tendencies humans have to misinterpret and
misrepresent the probabilities underlying many decision making scenarios.
Expected utility theory t theory breaks down decision making into a computation of utility, an indication
of overall value, for each possible outcome in a decision making scenario. Expected utility theory
proposes that decisions ultimately boil down to a consideration of possible alternatives, with people
always choosing the most desirable alternative.
Heuristics- mental shortcuts or rules of thumb that people typically se during inductive reasoning and
decision making. Often occurs at the unconscious level.
Making a decision based on the most available answer t the one that comes most easily to mind t is
known as the availability heuristic. t Example: people wanting to drive instead of flying after 9/11
because of so many images of plane crashes in the media.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Dread risks J although born of uncommon events, can have a profound impact on reasoning and decision making J example J fear of flying after 911 Cognition J mental activity such as thinking or representing information Analogical representations - have some characteristics of (and are therefore analogous to) actual objects, such as maps reflecting the physical layout of geography. Symbolic representations J most often are words or ideas, such as knowing what the word violin stands for a musical object. Visual imagery is associated with activity in perception-related areas of the brain. These areas are likely responsible for providing the spatial aspects, such as size and shape, of analogical visual imagery. When we retrieve information from memory, as when we recall a picture we recently saw in a LZ7ZZL]}L}Z] ]L}K]L[ZoooZZZL]}LZZ]L our brain the first time we saw the picture. Grouping things together based on shared properties, known as categorization, reduces the amount of knowledge we must hold in memory and is therefore an effective way of thinking. Concept refers to a class or category that includes some number of individuals or subtypes. Concepts can also be mental representatives of categories such as a musical instruments, or fruits, or bachelors. Defining attribute model: the idea that a concept is characterized by a list of features that is necessary to determine if an object is a member of a category. (Bachelor J an unmarried male) Defining attribute model suggests that a category is on an all-or-none basis, but in reality we often make exceptions in our categorizations, letting members into groups even f they do not have all the attributes or excluding them even if they have all the attributes. Second, the defining attribute model suggests that all attributes of a category are equally salient in terms of defining the given category. Research demonstrates not only that some attributes are more important for defining membership than others. Model posits that all members of a category are of equal membership J no one is a better fit than any other. Prototype models - within each category, some members of a particular category are more representative or prototypical of that category than other members. A man in his 20s who dates a lot is more prototypical of a bachelor than a 16 year old male. Although prototype models allow for some additional flexibility, they do not always provide a clear indication of what the prototype really is. www.notesolution.com
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