PSY240H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 17: Barbiturate, Hallucinogen, Inhalant

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24 Feb 2011
Chapter 17 Substance- Related Disorders
Substance- any natural or synthesized product that has psychoactive effects
Changes perceptions, thoughts, emotions and behaviors
Drugs- heroin, cocaine and amphetamines
Drug addicts- people who have problems as result of taking these drugs
A person does not need to be physically dependent on substance, in order to have
problems resulting from taking the substances
Cocaine use was tended to be higher in the United States
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LCD) use was more frequent in Canada
Men are much more likely than women to have used an illicit substance in their
The Dutch system is based on the belief that enforcing strict prohibitions of softer
drugs would drive users underground, where they would come into contact with
persons trafficking in harder drugs and would more likely to begin using the drugs
In mid 20th century, Zurich became famous for its “needle park” where the sale
and use of substances, including heroin and cocaine were carried out in the open
and allowed by authorities, while doctors employed by the government stood by
in a small kiosk to handle any emergencies and to distribute clean needles for the
injection of substances
1992 the park was closed because of evidence that addicts from around Europe
had poured onto the city and crime had soared
As long as the 1500 B.C natives in the Andes Highlands chewed on coca leaves to
increase their endurance
Coca leaves were manufactured into cocaine
Cocaine was used legally throughout Europe and then North America into the 20th
century to relieve fatigue
Was an ingredient in the original Coca-Cola drink and more than 50 other elixirs
Opium a milky juice produced from the poppy plant, has been used for hundred of
years to relieve pain, particularly in Asia and Europe
The leaves of a plant called Khat had been chewed in parts of eastern Africa, the
middle east, and south America for hundred of years to produce a sense of
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well0being and relief from fatigue
Modern derivatives of Khat are used to make amphetamines; a class of drugs used
to treat ADHD, narcolepsy, and obesity and included in over the counter cold
remedies and appetite suppressants for weight control.
Substance- related disorder- use of substance may lead to significant problems in
the abilities to function in daily lives- may shrink job and family responsibilities,
may cause people to act impulsively or bizarrely, may endanger own lives or the
lives of others
Alcohol is also associated with over half of the deaths due to traffic accidents and
homicides and with 30% of all suicides
Definitions Of Substance-Related Disorder
Four substance-related conditions recognized by the DSM-IV-TR: substance
intoxication, substance withdrawal, substance abuse, Substance Dependence
Apply across a variety of substances but the specific symptoms depend on the
substance used
Substance Intoxication- Experience of significant maladaptive behavioral and
psychological symptoms due to the effect of a substance on the CNS (Central
Nervous System)
Substance Withdrawal- Experience of clinically significant distress in social,
occupational, or other areas of functioning due to the cessation or reduction of
substance use
Substance Abuse- Diagnosis given when recurrent substance use leads to
significant harmful consequences
Substance Dependence- Diagnosis given when substance use leads to
physiological dependence or significant impairment or distress
Substances are group into 5 categories
1. CNS Depressants- alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines and inhalants (do not
have withdrawal symptoms)
2. CNS Stimulants-cocaine, amphetamines, nicotine (do not have intoxication,
abuse or dependence symptoms) and caffeine (do not have withdrawal, abuse,
dependence symptoms)
3. Opioids- heroin and morphine
4. Hallucinogens and phencyclidine (PCP) (do not experience have withdrawal
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5. Cannabis (do not have withdrawal symptoms)
Substance- related disorder- experience significant problems in cognitions and
mood, anxiety, hallucinations, delusions and seizures when exposed
Substance- Intoxication- a set of behavioral and psychological changes that occur
as a direct result of the physiological effects of a substance on the CNS
Cannot control their bodies as they normally do, may stumble or be too slow or
awkward with their reactions
Often want to sleep a lot of not at all
Intoxication begins to decline as the amount of substance in people’s blood tissue
declines, but the symptoms of intoxication may last for hours or days after the
substance is no longer detectable in the body
Short-term (acute) intoxication can produce different symptoms than chronic
Environment in which people become intoxicated can also influence how
maladaptive the intoxication is: people who drink alcohol only at home may be at
less risk of causing harm to themselves or others than people who typically drink
at bars and drive home under the influence of alcohol
Diagnosis of substance intoxication is given only when the behavioral and
psychological changes the person experiences are significantly maladaptive in
that they substantially disrupt the person’s social and family relationships, cause
occupational or financial problems, or place the individual at significant risk for
adverse effects, such as traffic accidents, severe medical complications or legal
Substance- Withdrawal- involves a set of physiological and behavioral symptoms
that result hen people who have been using substances heavily for prolonged
periods of time stop using the substances or greatly reduce their use
Diagnosis is not made unless the withdrawal symptoms cause significant distress
or impairment in a person’s everyday functioning
Caffeine withdrawal is not included in the DSM-IV-TR
Subtle physiological signs of withdrawal, such as problems in attentions,
perceptions, or motor skills, may be present for many weeks or months after a
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Document Summary

Abuse: diagnosis of substance abuse is given when a person"s recurrent use of a substance results in significant harmful consequences. Dsm-iv-tr criteria of diagnosing substance abuse requires repeated problems as a result of the use of a substance: one or more of the following occurs during a 12-month period, leading to significant impairment or distress: Depressants: slow the activity of the cns. In moderate doses they make people relaxed and somewhat sleepy, reduce concentration and impair thinking and motor skills: heavy doses can induce stupor or coma. Alcohol abuse and dependence: diagnosis of alcohol dependence typically have all the problems of alcohol abuser. 52% of canadian students lived off campus with their parents. 15% of u. s students lived off campus with their parents: living on campus was associated with heavy alcohol use in both countries, the most commonly drug used is alcohol. 61% of students reporting use in the 12 months prior to the survey of student.

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