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Chapter 17

Study guide for chapter 17

27 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H1
Professor
Neil Rector

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Chapter 17 Substance- Related Disorders
Substance- any natural or synthesized product that has psychoactive effects
Changes perceptions, thoughts, emotions and behaviors
Drugs- heroin, cocaine and amphetamines
Drug addicts- people who have problems as result of taking these drugs
A person does not need to be physically dependent on substance, in order to have
problems resulting from taking the substances
Cocaine use was tended to be higher in the United States
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LCD) use was more frequent in Canada
Men are much more likely than women to have used an illicit substance in their
lives
The Dutch system is based on the belief that enforcing strict prohibitions of softer
drugs would drive users underground, where they would come into contact with
persons trafficking in harder drugs and would more likely to begin using the drugs
In mid 20th century, Zurich became famous for its “needle park” where the sale
and use of substances, including heroin and cocaine were carried out in the open
and allowed by authorities, while doctors employed by the government stood by
in a small kiosk to handle any emergencies and to distribute clean needles for the
injection of substances
1992 the park was closed because of evidence that addicts from around Europe
had poured onto the city and crime had soared
As long as the 1500 B.C natives in the Andes Highlands chewed on coca leaves to
increase their endurance
Coca leaves were manufactured into cocaine
Cocaine was used legally throughout Europe and then North America into the 20th
century to relieve fatigue
Was an ingredient in the original Coca-Cola drink and more than 50 other elixirs
Opium a milky juice produced from the poppy plant, has been used for hundred of
years to relieve pain, particularly in Asia and Europe
The leaves of a plant called Khat had been chewed in parts of eastern Africa, the
middle east, and south America for hundred of years to produce a sense of
www.notesolution.com
well0being and relief from fatigue
Modern derivatives of Khat are used to make amphetamines; a class of drugs used
to treat ADHD, narcolepsy, and obesity and included in over the counter cold
remedies and appetite suppressants for weight control.
Substance- related disorder- use of substance may lead to significant problems in
the abilities to function in daily lives- may shrink job and family responsibilities,
may cause people to act impulsively or bizarrely, may endanger own lives or the
lives of others
Alcohol is also associated with over half of the deaths due to traffic accidents and
homicides and with 30% of all suicides
Definitions Of Substance-Related Disorder
Four substance-related conditions recognized by the DSM-IV-TR: substance
intoxication, substance withdrawal, substance abuse, Substance Dependence
Apply across a variety of substances but the specific symptoms depend on the
substance used
Substance Intoxication- Experience of significant maladaptive behavioral and
psychological symptoms due to the effect of a substance on the CNS (Central
Nervous System)
Substance Withdrawal- Experience of clinically significant distress in social,
occupational, or other areas of functioning due to the cessation or reduction of
substance use
Substance Abuse- Diagnosis given when recurrent substance use leads to
significant harmful consequences
Substance Dependence- Diagnosis given when substance use leads to
physiological dependence or significant impairment or distress
Substances are group into 5 categories
1. CNS Depressants- alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines and inhalants (do not
have withdrawal symptoms)
2. CNS Stimulants-cocaine, amphetamines, nicotine (do not have intoxication,
abuse or dependence symptoms) and caffeine (do not have withdrawal, abuse,
dependence symptoms)
3. Opioids- heroin and morphine
4. Hallucinogens and phencyclidine (PCP) (do not experience have withdrawal
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symptoms)
5. Cannabis (do not have withdrawal symptoms)
Substance- related disorder- experience significant problems in cognitions and
mood, anxiety, hallucinations, delusions and seizures when exposed
Intoxication
Substance- Intoxication- a set of behavioral and psychological changes that occur
as a direct result of the physiological effects of a substance on the CNS
Cannot control their bodies as they normally do, may stumble or be too slow or
awkward with their reactions
Often want to sleep a lot of not at all
Intoxication begins to decline as the amount of substance in people’s blood tissue
declines, but the symptoms of intoxication may last for hours or days after the
substance is no longer detectable in the body
Short-term (acute) intoxication can produce different symptoms than chronic
intoxication
Environment in which people become intoxicated can also influence how
maladaptive the intoxication is: people who drink alcohol only at home may be at
less risk of causing harm to themselves or others than people who typically drink
at bars and drive home under the influence of alcohol
Diagnosis of substance intoxication is given only when the behavioral and
psychological changes the person experiences are significantly maladaptive in
that they substantially disrupt the person’s social and family relationships, cause
occupational or financial problems, or place the individual at significant risk for
adverse effects, such as traffic accidents, severe medical complications or legal
problems
Withdrawal
Substance- Withdrawal- involves a set of physiological and behavioral symptoms
that result hen people who have been using substances heavily for prolonged
periods of time stop using the substances or greatly reduce their use
Diagnosis is not made unless the withdrawal symptoms cause significant distress
or impairment in a person’s everyday functioning
Caffeine withdrawal is not included in the DSM-IV-TR
Subtle physiological signs of withdrawal, such as problems in attentions,
perceptions, or motor skills, may be present for many weeks or months after a
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Description
Chapter 17 Substance- Related Disorders Substance- any natural or synthesized product that has psychoactive effects Changes perceptions, thoughts, emotions and behaviors Drugs- heroin, cocaine and amphetamines Drug addicts- people who have problems as result of taking these drugs A person does not need to be physically dependent on substance, in order to have problems resulting from taking the substances Cocaine use was tended to be higher in the United States Lysergic acid diethylamide (LCD) use was more frequent in Canada Men are much more likely than women to have used an illicit substance in their lives The Dutch system is based on the belief that enforcing strict prohibitions of softer drugs would drive users underground, where they would come into contact with persons trafficking in harder drugs and would more likely to begin using the drugs th In mid 20 century, Zurich became famous for its needle park where the sale and use of substances, including heroin and cocaine were carried out in the open and allowed by authorities, while doctors employed by the government stood by in a small kiosk to handle any emergencies and to distribute clean needles for the injection of substances 1992 the park was closed because of evidence that addicts from around Europe had poured onto the city and crime had soared As long as the 1500 B.C natives in the Andes Highlands chewed on coca leaves to increase their endurance Coca leaves were manufactured into cocaine Cocaine was used legally throughout Europe and then North America into the 20 th century to relieve fatigue Was an ingredient in the original Coca-Cola drink and more than 50 other elixirs Opium a milky juice produced from the poppy plant, has been used for hundred of years to relieve pain, particularly in Asia and Europe The leaves of a plant called Khat had been chewed in parts of eastern Africa, the middle east, and south America for hundred of years to produce a sense of www.notesolution.com well0being and relief from fatigue Modern derivatives of Khat are used to make amphetamines; a class of drugs used to treat ADHD, narcolepsy, and obesity and included in over the counter cold remedies and appetite suppressants for weight control. Substance- related disorder- use of substance may lead to significant problems in the abilities to function in daily lives- may shrink job and family responsibilities, may cause people to act impulsively or bizarrely, may endanger own lives or the lives of others Alcohol is also associated with over half of the deaths due to traffic accidents and homicides and with 30% of all suicides Definitions Of Substance-Related Disorder Four substance-related conditions recognized by the DSM-IV-TR: substance intoxication, substance withdrawal, substance abuse, Substance Dependence Apply across a variety of substances but the specific symptoms depend on the substance used Substance Intoxication- Experience of significant maladaptive behavioral and psychological symptoms due to the effect of a substance on the CNS (Central Nervous System) Substance Withdrawal- Experience of clinically significant distress in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning due to the cessation or reduction of substance use Substance Abuse- Diagnosis given when recurrent substance use leads to significant harmful consequences Substance Dependence- Diagnosis given when substance use leads to physiological dependence or significant impairment or distress Substances are group into 5 categories 1. CNS Depressants- alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines and inhalants (do not have withdrawal symptoms) 2. CNS Stimulants-cocaine, amphetamines, nicotine (do not have intoxication, abuse or dependence symptoms) and caffeine (do not have withdrawal, abuse, dependence symptoms) 3. Opioids- heroin and morphine 4. Hallucinogens and phencyclidine (PCP) (do not experience have withdrawal www.notesolution.com
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