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Chapter 7-12

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University of Toronto St. George
Ashley Waggoner Denton

Chapter 7: Attention & Memory - Attention is important to your ability to function in your daily life. - Brit. Anne Treisman UBC theory about attention and recognition: we automatically identify ‘primitive’ features (colour, shape, orientation, movement) within environment. - Treisman: separate systems analyze objects’ different visual features. - Parallel processing: systems process all info at the same time, and we can attend to one feature by effectively blocking out the further processing of the others. - Serial processing: for 2+ features  have to look at stimuli one at a time  effortful. - Conjunction task: made up of 2+ simple tasks. - E.C.Cherry(1953): Cocktail phenomenon: you can focus on a single conversation in the midst of a chaotic cocktail party, yet a particularly pertinent stimulus can capture your attention. - Shadowing: to attend to one message, a person can ‘shadow’ the others, giving the person no awareness/ recognition of the other messages. - Broadbent(1958) filter theory: assumed that people have a limited capacity for sensory information and thus screen incoming info, letting in only the most important. - Stimuli that evoke emotion/are socially relevant can readily capture attention  potential info about threats, potential mates, etc. - Change blindness: we are often ‘blind’ to large changes in our environments because we cannot attend to everything in the vast array of visual information available. - Stages of memory: encoding phase: info is acquired/encoded or changed into neural code that the brain can use  storage phase(lasts for fraction of second to a lifetime)  retrieval: ‘reaching into’ memory storage and retrieving previously encoded and stored memory as we need it. - Modal memory model: three stage system involving sensory memory  (attention) short-term memory (encoding) long-term memory. - Sensory memory: temporary memory system, memory for sensory info that is briefly close to its original form. - Information processing model: sensory input  encoding  storage  retrieval - 1960 George Sperling: initial empirical support for sensory memory (3 rows of letters) - Sensory memory allows us to view the world as a continuous stream - Short-term memory (STM): limited-capacity memory system that holds info in awareness for short period but longer than sensory memory  also called working memory (WM)/immediate memory)  20-30 seconds - Memory span & chunking: George Miller: limit of WM is generally 7 items (+-2)  memory span - Chunking: organizing info into meaningful units/ chunks. - Ecker, Lewandowsky, Oberauer, & Chee 2010  WM is updated to take into account new info: retrieval  transformation  substitution - 4 components of WM:  Central executive: presides over phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, episodic buffer. Encodes info from SM filters sufficiently important info into LM. Relies on other 3 subcomponents.  Phonological loop: encodes auditory info  inner voice  reads along as your eyes process written material  difficult to absorb meaning simply by scanning your eyes across written material  Visuospatial sketchpad: process visual info (eg object’s features/location)  Episodic buffer: holds temporary info about oneself, drawing heavily on long-term episodic buffer - Long-term memory (LTM): relatively permanent storage of info  nearly limitless - Serial position effect  primary effect: the better memory people have for items presented in the beginning of the list  recency effect: people’s better memory for the most recent items, the items at the end of the list. - Two memory systems highly interdependent - Overlearning leads to improved memory - Material learned over distributed practice is remembered better than material studied through mass practice. - Only info that helps us adapt to our environment is typically transformed into a LTM. - We attend just enough for the task at hand and lose info that seems irrelevant - Memory allows us to use info in ways that assist in reproduction and survival - Different types of LTM:  Implicit memory: unconscious memory  Explicit memory: processes we use to remember info that we can say we know  declarative memory: cog memory retrieved from explicit memory, info that can be declared (exams test declarative memory)  Explicit memory into episodic/semantic memory: episodic  past experiences and includes info about the time and place the experience occurred VS semantic  knowledge of facts independent of personal experience.  Repetition priming (IM): improvement in identifying or processing a stimulus that has been experiences previously.  Procedural / motor memory (IM): involves motor skills, habits, and other behaviours employed to achieve goals.  Prospective memory: future oriented, in that it means an individual remembering to do something at some future time.  involves both automatic and controlled processes. - Schemas: structures in long-term memory that help us perceive, organize, process, and use info  can lead to biased encoding because culture heavily influences schemas - Retrieval cue: anything that helps a person sort through the vast data in LTM to access the right info  why it’s easier to recognize than to recall (eg multiple choice tests) - Endel Tulving’s encoding specificity principle: any stimulus encoded along with an experience can later trigger a memory of the experience - Context dependent memory: memory enhanced when the recall situation is similar to the encoding situation - State dependent memory: memory enhanced when internal states match during encoding and recall - Kark Lashley  engram: physical site of memory storage - Equipotentiality(Lashley): memory is distributed throughout the brain rather than confined to any specific location. - Memories stored in multiple regions of brain and linked through memory circuits  Donald Hebb  ‘fire together wire together’ - Medial temporal lobes: important for declarative memory  responsible for coordinating and strengthening connections among neurons when something is learned - Consolidation: immediate memories become lasting memories  leaves biological trail - - Frontal lobes important for many aspects of memory: episodic, WM, spatial, time sequences, and various aspects of encoding and retrieval - Memory modulators: neurotransmitters that modulate or modify memory storage - Important events lead to neurochemical changes that produce emotional reactions, which in turn make those events especially likely to be stored in memory. - Epinephrine causes release of glucose, which enters the brain and influences memory storage. - More recent studies show that epinephrine enhances memory because of its effect on norepinephrine activity in the amygdala. - Any arousing event causes greater activity of norepinephrine receptors  strengthens the memory of event differ w genders  women better w emotional events  Effects long-lasting  Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): involves frequent and recurring thoughts/flashbacks  inability to forget  attentional bias: hypervigilant to stimuli associated with their traumatic events - Forgetting: inability to retrieve memory from LTM - Memory transience: pattern of forgetting over time  occurs because of interference from other info - Schachter: seven sins of memory: transience, absentmindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias, persistence - Proactive interference: old info inhibits the ability to remember new info - Retroactive interference: new info inhibits the ability to remember old info - Blocking: temporarily unable to remember something  tip-of-tongue phenomenon - Absentmindedness: inattentive or shallow encoding of events - Amnesia: deficit in LTM resulting from disease, brain injury, or psych trauma.  Retrograde amnesia: people lose past memories for events, facts, people, or even personal info.  Anterograde amnesia: lose ability to form new memories.  Korsakoff’s syndrome: severe form of memory disturbance linked to chronic alcoholism - Brown & Kulik: flashbulb memories: vivid memories for the circumstances in which one first learned of a surprising and consequential/emotional event - Von Restorff’s effect: a distinct event might simply be recalled more easily than a trivial event, however inaccurate the result - Source misattribution: misremembering of the time, place, person, or circumstance involved with a memory. (eg false fame effect, sleeper effect) - Cryptomnesia: when a person thinks he/she is coming up with a new idea, but has really has retrieved an old idea from memory and failed to attribute the idea to its proper source. - People make poor eyewitnesses:  Cross-ethnic identification: people are particularly bad at identifying individuals of other ethnicities/races  Suggestibility & misinformation: people can develop biased memories when provided with misleading info  Eyewitness confidence: people cannot differentiate accurate eyewitnesses from inaccurate ones because the wrong ones are just as confident, often more confident, than the right ones. - Source amnesia: person has memory for an event but cannot remember where he/she encountered the info - Childhood amnesia: absence of early memories due to early lack of linguistic capacity as well as immature frontal lobe - Confabulation: unintended false recollection of episodic memory  ‘honest lying’ - Repressed memories controversial: recovered memories may have been implanted - Memory bias: people’s memories for events change over time to be consistent with current beliefs or attitudes - Mnemonics: specific strategies for improving memory  Practice: the more you repeat an action, the easier it is to perform that action  Elaborate the material: the deeper level of processing, the more likely you are to remember the material later  Overlearn: keep rehearsing material periodically until you can recall it easily  Get adequate sleep: sleep may help the consolidation of memories and disturbing sleep interferes with learning  Use verbal mnemonics: memorizing phrases make it easier to remember things that are difficult to remember.  Use visual imagery : create a mental image of material is an especially good way to remember Chapter 8: Thinking and Intelligence - The brain represents info and the act of thinking, cognition, is directly associated with manipulating these representations. - The challenge for cog psychologists is to understand the nature of our everyday mental representation. - 2 basic types of reps, usually corresponds to images and words  useful in understanding how we think because they form the basis of human thought, intelligence, and the ability to solve everyday life’s complex problems.  Analogical rep: have some characteristics of actual objects.  Symbolic: usually words or ideas, are abstract/do not have actual relationships to physical qualities of objects. - Kosslyn (1995) has shown that visual imagery is associated with activity in visual perception- related areas in the brain (primary visual cortex).  same area is activated when we view something are active when we think in images. - Mental images not perfectly accurate  correspond generally to the physical object it represents. - We can only represent a limited range of knowledge analogically (eg we often use shortcuts to keep info in memory, but shortcuts often lead to errors). - Our memory systems are organized so that we can call up info quickly as needed  Categorization: grouping things based on shared properties  reduces the amount of knowledge we must hold in memory  more efficient way of thinking - Concept: a category, or class, that includes subtypes and/or individual items  can consist of mental reps, of a relation between reps, or of a quality or dimension  allows organization of mental reps around common theme. - Defining attribute model: each concept is categorized by a list of features that are necessary to determine if an object is a member of the category  fails to capture many key aspects of how we organize things in our heads.  Suggests membership is on an all-or-nothing basis when we often we make exceptions  Suggests all attributes of given category are equally salient in terms of defining the category  Posits that all members of a category are equal in category membership - Prototype model: category based on its ‘best example’ or ‘prototype’.  Allows flexibility in rep of concepts, but the selection of this prototype is difficult (can be based on its select attributes, but not all??) - Exemplar model (addresses prototype concern): proposes that any concept has no single best rep – instead, all the exemplars of category membership form the concept.  Assumes that through experience people form fuzzy rep of a concept because there is no single rep of any concept  The prototypes are simply members we have encountered more often. - Schank & Abelson (1977): scripts: schemas about sequences. - Schemas organize useful info about environments:  Common situations have consistent attributes  People have specific roles within situational contexts  Unfortunately can have unintended consequences (eg reinforcing sexist/racist beliefs) - Scripts dictate appropriate behaviours, and what we view as appropriate is shaped by culture. - Relational schemas influence what people expect from their social interactions. - Schema pros:  Minimize the amounts of attention required to navigate familiar environments  Allow us to recognize and avoid unusual and dangerous situations - Reasoning: determining if a conclusion is valid, using info you believe is true  Deductive reasoning: reason from general to the specific  Use logic to draw specific conclusions under certain assumptions/premises  Tasks often presented as syllogisms: logical arguments containing premises and a conclusion  Conditional: if a is true, then b is true  Categorical: all a are b, and all b are c, so all a are c  Inductive reasoning: reason from specific to general  Use of scientific method of discover general principles - Decision making: select among alternatives, usually by identifying important criteria and determining how well each alternative satisfies these criteria.  Normative models: optimal decision makers, select choice that yields the biggest gain  Expected utility theory: computation of utility (overall value of each income), selecting the most desirable of alternatives by ranking  Descriptive models: tried to account for humans’ tendencies to misinterpret and misrepresent the probabilities underlying many scenarios and act irrationally even when they understand the probabilities. - Problem solving: overcome obstacles to move from a present state to a desired goal state.  Using subgoals: identify steps in solving problem.  Insight: metaphorical mental lightbulb that goes on when someone realizes the solution to a problem  Insight can be achieved when a problem initially seem unsolvable  how we view a problem can significantly affect how easily we solve it.  Restructuring problem: representing it in a novel way  can yield a solution not available under the old problem structure, leading to insight  We tend to persist with previous strategies (mental sets)  often are useful but sometimes can make it difficult to find the best solution.  Functional fixedness: our mental rep about object’s typical function  makes it difficult for solver to reinterpret object’s potential functions.  Working backward: proceeding from the goal state to the initial state can help generate strategies  Finding an appropriate analogy: using a strategy that works in one context to solve a structurally similar problem  requires paying attention to each problem’s structure.  Satisficers: ‘good enough’, chooses option that sufficiently satisfies needs  Maximizers: always seek the best possible choices  frustrated by options and feel paralyzed by indecision when they have to select between equally attractive choices - Tversky & Kahneman (1970s): heuristics: mental shortcuts or rules of thumb that people typically use to make decisions.  Similar to Algorithm: a procedure that, if followed correctly, will always yield the correct answer.  Heuristic thinking often occurs unconsciously.  Useful partly because it allows us to focus our limited attention on other things.  Adaptive  allows us to decide quickly rather than weighing all the evidence each time we have to decide.  Can also result in biases, which may lead to errors or faulty decisions.  Availability heuristic: tendency to rely on info that is easy to retrieve.  Representative heuristic: base a decision on the extent to which each option reflects what we already believe about a situation.  Can lead to faulty reasoning if fail to take other info into account such as base rate (frequency of an event’s occurring) - Framing: how info is presented can alter how people perceive it  Framing decision to emphasize potential losses/ gains of at least 1 alternative can significantly influence the decision making. - Prospect theory (Tversky & Kahneman):  The need to take into account people’s wealth in predicting their choice  The fact that because losses feel much worse than gains feel good, people try to avoid situations that involve losses  loss aversion - Gilbert & Wilson: Affective forecasting  People are not good at knowing how they will feel about something in the future  generally do not realize how poor they are at predicting their future feelings  After a neg event, people engage in strategies that help them feel better (eg rationalizing why it happened & minimizing its importance)  adaptive in that they protect the sufferer’s mental health  reduce emotional consequences  People tend to overestimate their pain and underestimate how well they will cope with the event  Also applies to positive events (eg. Winning silver medal & agony of not winning gold)  Kawakami at al (2009): affective forecasting errors may also be involved in racism  participants that said they would be extremely upset/ condemn racist behaviours actually showed little stress & indifference. - Intelligence: the human ability to use knowledge to reason, make decisions, solve problems, understand complex ideas, learn quickly, and adapt to environmental challenges. - 3 approaches to understanding intelligence:  Psychometric: focuses on how well people perform on standardized achievement tests, examining what people know and their problem solving skills.  Tests by achievement assess current level of skill and knowledge  Aptitude tests examine whether people will be good at various tasks in the future.  Binet – Simon Intelligence scale  revised w/ normative scores for American children: the Stanford revision of the Binet-Simon Scale  Wechsler 1939: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: verbal & performance  Cognitive: examines the particular mental abilities that allow people to operate intelligently.  Biological: concerned with how the brain processes information and the extent to which differences in brain activity are affected by genes and environment. - Binet: mental age: assessment of child’s intellectual standing compared with that of same-age peers. - Intelligence Quotient(IQ): (Stern) is computed by dividing a child’s estimated mental age by the child’s chronological age and multiplying the result by 100.  scores fall upon normal distribution - IQ scores typically predict about 25% variation in performance at school/work  many other factors need to be factored in - IQ tests are also based on standard western cultures  cultural bias - Reification: tendency to think about complex traits as though they have a single cause and an objective reality  intelligence as physical reality (reifying the concept)  critical thinkers avoid treating abstract concepts as though it has a tangible reality and recognize the complexity in complex concepts. - Binet: viewed intelligence as a general ability - Factor analysis: statistical technique that clusters (factors) items similar to one another  Spearman(1904): most people who scored highly on one type of item also scored highly on other types of items  General intelligence (g): factor that contributes to performance on any intellectual task. - Cattell(1971) proposed that g consists of 2 types of intelligence.  Fluid intelligence: info processing esp in novel/complex circumstances eg reasoning, drawing, analogies, and thinking quickly/flexibly.  Crystallized intelligence: knowledge we acquire through experience (eg vocab, cultural info), and ability to use this knowledge.  Throughout adult years Crystallized intelligence grows steadily, while fluid intelligence declines steadily. - Gardner (1983): multiple intelligences: different types of intellectual talents that are independent from one another.  Bodily-kinesthetic: highly attuned to body/ able to control their motion with exquisite skill.  Linguistic: verbal skills  Mathematical/logical  Visual/spatial  Intrapersonal/self-understanding  Interpersonal/social understanding  Each person has a unique pattern of intelligences and no one should be viewed as smarter than others, just differently talented. - Sternberg(1999): theory of 3 intelligences:  Analytical: similar to that measured by psychometric tests  Creative intelligence: the ability to gain insight and solve novel problems (to think in new and interesting ways)  Practical intelligence: dealing with everyday tasks - Emotional intelligence: form of social intelligence that emphasizes the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions to guide thoughts and actions (Salovey & Mayer 1990). - People high in EQ recognize emotional experiences in themselves and others, then respond to those emotions productively. - Intelligence related to cog performance  simple reaction time, choice reaction time  people who score higher on intelligence tests respond more quickly/be involved in greater longevity. - Memory tests that have dual components show a strong correlation between WM and general intelligence  may be the ability to pay attention amongst distractions. - Studies have found that the volume of neuronal cell bodies in the frontal lobes and in other brain regions that support attentional control is related to fluid intelligence. - Savants: people who have minimal intellectual capacities in most domains but at a very young age show an exceptional ability in some ‘intelligent’ process. - Social multiplier: environmental factor or an entire environment, that increases what might have started as a small advantage. - Flynn effect: IQ scores have risen dramatically during the last century.  each generation needs more education than the preceding one, and since work and leisure activities require more complex cog processing than in the previous years, cog abilities escalate within the span of one generation. - Stereotype threat: apprehension or fear that some people might experience if they believe that their performances may confirm negative stereotypes about their racial group.  causes distraction & anxiety, interfering with performance by reducing capacity of STM and undermining confidence and motivation. Chapter 9: Motivation and Emotion - Motivation: area of psych science concerned with the factors that energize, or stimulate behaviour. - Motivational states are:  Energizing  activate & arouse behaviours.  Directive: guide behaviours toward satisfying specific goals or specific needs.  Help people persist in their behaviour until goals are achieved/needs are satisfied.  Differ in strength depending on internal and external factors. - Need: state of deficiency  leads goal-directed behaviours. - Need hierarchy(Maslow): (lowest as base)  Self-actualization: living to full potential, achieving personal dreams and aspirations  Esteem: good self-opinion, accomplishments, reputation  Belonging and love: acceptance, friendship  Safety: security, protection, freedom from threats  Physiological: hunger, thirst, warmth, air, sleep - Arousal: generic term used to describe physiological activation or increased autonomic responses. - Drives: psychological states that encourage behaviour that satisfies needs. - Homeostasis (Cannon): tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium/steadiness. - Incentives: external objects/external goals, rather than internal drives, that motivate behaviours. - Yerkes-Dodson law: dictates that performance that increases with arousal up to an optimal point and then decreases with increasing arousal.  shaped like inverted U. - Pleasure principle: drives people to seek pleasure and avoid pain  hedonism: human’s desire for pleasantness. - Extrinsic motivation: emphasizes the external goal an activity is directed toward - Intrinsic motivation: the value/pleasure that is associated with an activity that has no apparent external goal. - Creativity: tendency to generate ideas or alternatives that may be useful in solving problems, communicating, and entertaining ourselves and others. - Self-determination theory: people are motivated to satisfy needs for competence, relatedness to others, and autonomy/sense of personal control.  extrinsic rewards may reduce intrinsic value because such rewards undermine people’s feelings that they are choosing something for themselves. - Goal: desired outcome, usually associated with some specific object or future behavioural intention. - Murray proposed 27 basic psychosocial needs (eg need for power, autonomy, achievement, and play) - Self-regulation: process by which people alter or change their behaviour to attain personal goals.  Challenge: postponing immediate gratification in the pursuit for long-term goals - Locke & Latham: challenging, but not overly difficult, and specific goals are best.  encourage effort, persistence, an concentration. - Self-efficacy: expectancy that your efforts will lead to success. - Achievement motive: desire to do well relative to standards of excellence. - Hot cognitions (rewarding, pleasurable) into cold cognitions(conceptual, symbolic) (Michel): transforming the desired object into something undesired. - Need to belong theory: need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes. - Social comparison theory (Festinger 1954): we are motivated to have accurate info about ourselves and others. We compare ourselves with those around us to test and validate personal beliefs and emotional responses, especially when the situation is ambiguous and we can compare ourselves with people relatively similar to us. - Eating motivated by flavour  not just taste but variety  sensory-specific satiety: animals will stop eating relatively quickly if they have just one type of food to eat, but they will eat more if presented with a different type of food.  frontal lobe region involved in assessing food’s reward value exhibit decreased activity when same food is eaten over and over but exhibit increased activity when new food is presented. - What people eat is by a combination of personal experience and cultural beliefs. - Neophobia: fear of novel things  avoidance of unfamiliar foods. - Cuisine: local norms for what to eat and how to prepare it. - Hypothalamus is the brain structure that most influences eating.  integrates various inhibitory and excitatory feeding msgs and organizes behaviours involved in eating. - Damage to ventralmedial section  hyperphagia: consumes large quantities of food - Damage to lateral  aphagia: diminished eating behaviours - Gourmand syndrome: damage to limbic system/right frontal lobes  people become obsessed with fine food and food preparation  obsession centre on food’s reward properties - Glucostatic theory: the bloodstream is monitored for its glucose levels. - Lipostatic theory: a set-point for body fat in which deviations from set-point initiate compensatory behaviours to return to homeostasis.  leptin - Sexual response cycle: a predictable pattern of physical and psychological responses that occur in 4 stages:  Excitement phase: blood flows to genitals, people report feelings of arousal.  Plateau phase: pulse rate, breathing, and blood pressure increase, as do the various signs or arousal.  Orgasm phase: consisting of involuntary muscle contractions throughout body, dramatic increases in breathing and heart rate, rhythmic contractions of the vagina for women, and ejaculation of semen for men.  Resolution phase: male enters refractory period. Female response varies. - Hormones influence physical development of brain and body  puberty.  Influence sexual behaviours through motivation  activate reproductive behaviour  Androgens, testosterones(for sexual drive), estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin(released during orgasm). - Neurotransmitters:  Dopamine in limbic system involved in physical experience of pleasure  Serotonin also implicated  Nitric oxide: sexual stimulation leads to nitric oxide production  plays a large role in sexual arousal  Viagra - Whereas in men hormones are released at the same rate over time, in women the release of hormones varies according to the menstrual cycle  women may process social info differently depending on whether they are in a fertile phase of the cycle. - Sexual scripts: cognitive beliefs about how a sexual episode should be enacted. - Erotic plasticity: the extent that sex drive can be shaped by social, cultural, and situational factors. (eg education, religion) - Sexual strategies theory: differences in erotic plasticity b/w genders are due to different adaptive problems faced through human history by men and by women.  rank the importance of qualities in their relationship partners differently women: concerned for best possible outcomes for few offsprings  men: concerned about spreading genes as far as possible. - Hypothalamus may be related to sexual activation  activated when in contact with pheromone of attractive member. - Emotion (affect): feelings that involve subjective evaluation, physiological processes, and cognitive beliefs. - Mood: diffuse, long-lasting emotional states that influence rather than interrupt thought and behaviour. - Emotions are specific, in response to events in the particular environment  moods refer to a vague sense that people feel certain ways. - Neg and pos experiences guide behaviour that increases the probability of surviving and reproducing  emotions are adaptive because they prepare and guide behaviours - Emotions provide info about the importance of stimuli to personal goals and then prepare goals and then prepare people for actions aimed at achieving those goals. - Many emotions involve interpersonal dynamics. - Nonverbal displays of emotion signal inner states, moods, and needs  mouth may be better ay conveying emotion than the eyes, but eyes are extremely important in communicating emotion. - Context profoundly altered how people interpreted the emotion. - Some facial expressions (eg happiness, surprise, anger, sadness) are universal and therefore likely biologically based (eg blind athletes had similar responses suggesting that pride responses are innate rather than learned by observation) others may be culturally based - Display rules: govern how and when emotions are exhibited, learned through socialization and dictate which emotions are suitable to given situations. - Men and women may vary in their emotional expressiveness for evolutionary purposes  women: caregiving, nurturance, interpersonal relationships  men: competitiveness, dominance, defensiveness. - Women report more intense emotions  social norm  women better at articulating emotions - People’s moods can alter ongoing mental processes: good mood  heuristic thinking: making decisions more quickly and more efficiently  also facilitate creative, elaborate responses to challenging problems and motivate persistence. - Positive feelings signal satisfactory progress  encouraging additional effort  higher dopamine levels - Belief persistence: tendency to hold onto previous ideas even when presented with evidence that the belief is questionable or just is plain wrong. (‘my side bias’) - Anticipated emotional states are an important source of info and a guide in decision making  emotion appears to have a direct effect that does not rely on cog processes. - Risk judgements strongly influenced by current feelings, and when cognitions and emotions are in conflict, emotion typically have more impact on decisions. - Affect-as-information theory (Schwarz & Clore 1983): people use their current mood states to make judgements and appraisals, even if they don’t know the sources of their moods. - Damasio 1994 : somatic marker theory  most self-regulatory actions and decisions are affected by bodily reactions called somatic markers. - Emotional reactions help us select responses likely to promote survival and reproduction.  motivated if object will likely produce pleasurable state - Guilt is a negative emotional state associated with anxiety, tension, and agitation  occurs when someone feels responsible for another person’s negative affective state / or occasionally when individuals don’t feel personally responsible for another person’s negative state (eg survivior’s guilt) - Guilt protects and strengthens interpersonal relationships.  Keeps people from doing things that would harm relationship while encouraging behaviours that strengthen relationship  Displays of guilt demonstrates that people care about their relationship partners  affirming social bonds  Guilt is especially effective when people hold power over us and it is difficult for them to do what we want. - Socialization is the predominant influence on moral emotions such as guilt. - Embarrassment usually follows violations of cultural norms, loss of physical poise, teasing, or self-image threats.  rectifies interpersonal awkwardness and restores social bonds  represents submission to and affiliation with the social group and a recognition of t
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