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Chapter 10


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University of Toronto St. George
Prof Petit

Chapter 10: Spatial Ability Module 10.1 Spatial Ability What is Spatial Ability - spatial ability: ability to understand space and process spatial information. Describe 6 six individual spatial skills: 1. targeting - how well throw object at target 2. spatial orientation: how well recognize objects when they are placed in different orietnation 3. spatial location memory: how well remember location of objects 4. spatial visualization: how well you can remember location to objects 5. disembedding: how well you find figures that are hidden in other pictures 6. spatial perception: how well you determine where horizontal and vertical is in real world even if you are given distracting info - space construct of real space ( what you sense right now) and imagined space ( space you think about when you cannot directly experience it right now) Hemispheric Representation of Space - most common belief: left hemisphere for language and right for spatial - from Hughlins Jackson paper: On Nature of Duality of Brain - much support for this, but there are exceptions where lesion to left of bilateral damage = difficulties spatial perception - most basic spatial ability: ability to localize point in space - localize point: need to know where point is absolutely and relative position of point - need depth perception: whether point occupies same location as another point - neurologically normal identify location of dot more readily in left visual field - shows superiority of right hemisphere for processing spatial location - PET studies: right hemisphere involved in recall of spatial location info - depth perception: vary basic ability used determine relative position of object. Divided in global or local depth perception - local depth perception: ability to use detailed features of objects point by point to assess relative position - example: looking at relative position of words with corners of book determine which corner of book was closer to you - global depth perception: ability use difference between info reaching each eye to compute entire visual scene - FIgure 10.2: how do we get 3 dimensional image: brain computes difference between two eyes and fuses these images to produce depth - no obvious features = local depth perception not responsible - right hemisphere better at determining global depth perception - local depth perception: determination of which object is in front of another shows left visual advantage in normals, - both right and left hemisphere lesions disrupt local depth perception Localizing line and identifying a line - line orientation: position in which line is oriented in space, many tasks need accurate identification of line orientation like differentiate between letters of d and p - right hemisphere advantage for tactile and visual assessment of line orientation - left hemisphere advantage if line describe as horizontal or vertical line - test all types of cognitive abilities: test measuring only ONE type of ability might measure OTHER TYPES as well Object Geometry: spatial properties of object used to determine if object shares similar spatial properties with another - Research focuses on similarity between curved lines - right hemisphere advantage when using visual or tactile modalities - ability reconstruct previously viewed items relies on people reconstruct novel figures from memories - example: decision made about if people seen image previously more accurate when image presented in left visual field - right hemisphere superior at this task Objects Movement - ability to identify moving objects related to ability to track object and identify when object is rotated - tracking object related to where object is now and where will it be momentarily - Much of what is known about motion is known from experiments with monkeys and studies with fMRI show similar areas involved in humans - humans detection of motion related to increased activity in right hemisphere: occipital, temporal, parietal areas associated with processing of visual info - rotate hand: image brain processing changing BUT you never fail recognize your hand - mental rotation: rotation of object that does not occur overtly. In mental rotation tasks, participants are often presented with 2 or more items are rotated in different postions and asked to determine if they are the same or different object - relies on right hemisphere as measured by enhanced accuracy in left visual field or tasks of mental rotation result in greater activation of right hemisphere Parietal Lobes - brain processes info in V1 -> transferred to other areas of occipital lobe ( over 23 extrastriate areas - visual system: hierarchically organized; different extrastriate areas process different info ( example: process spatial info) - most info passes up hierarchy for more analysis and most areas communicate with each other a lot - functions in brain integrative = rely on performance of multiple areas - occipital divide: ventral visual stream and dorsal visual stream - ventral visual stream: “what” pathway useful for identifying objects - dorsal visual stream: “how” pathway used to know how motor acts must be be performed to manipulate an object - example: know how position your hand and fingers and how fast to move your hand toward object as well as location of pen - dorsal stream supports spatial processing of info and projects from primary visual areas to parietal regions Parietal Areas 5 and 7 - cells there allow cognitive maps to be made - cells don’t receive info about color or fine details of object - cells there respond movements occur in specific direction = objects tracked in space - cells respond to movement similar speed to walking or running - sensitivity to movement and space allow area 7 to analyze space and update position - when two factors are combined with ability of areas 5 and 7 to integrate large area of ipsilateral and contralateral space, areas 5 and 7 generate stable maps of space - meaning: cells in inferior parietal region sensitive to retionotopic representations of space as well as head position, movement, and speed of movement Lesions - parietal lobes lesioned in monkeys: impaired at computing spatial relations among objects - example; monkeys can’t learn to pick object according to whether or not it is closed to another object, but they can learn to pick up object consistently - example: discriminate between form(ventral) or spatial location (dorsal visual stream) required different parts of brain - Haxley: greater activation in right parietal lobe when participants performed tasks related to spatial location - there are cells in parietal lobe that are sensitive to visual qualities of object: texture, and further influence how hands manipulate object - dorsal and parietal properties suited to process info about how to interact with objects where they are in space - how does dorsal stream direct movement of object? - reciprocal connections of parietal lobes with frontal lobes that makes dorsal stream important for coordinating movements with spatial location of objects Frontal Lobes - parietal cells project areas to frontal lobes to both premotor and prefrontal areas - frontal lobe gets info from somatosensory, auditory, and visual association areas of parietal lobe - function unclear but one theory says: function is to provide accurate coordinate system of visual space and locate objects in space - Neurons in posterior system guide movements - In frontal lobes, there are nuclei responsible for directing head and eye movements toward stimuli in grasping space - nuclei communicate with parietal lobes = enhance ability to program motor movements aimed at reaching and grasping in space - participants build 3 dimensional object -> activation dorsal stream in parietal lobe and activation in dorsal premotor cortex in frontal lob - Why? task relies on short term visual spatial memory a.k.a visuospatial working memory - visuospatial working memory reflected by activation of dorsal premotor cortex - Research performed on monkeys and fMRI studies participants with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex confirmed role for dorsal premotor in visuospatial working memory - - Studies: activation in parietal lobe: lateral frontal areas: inferior, middle, precentral gyri and superior frontal sulcus - also activation in motor areas of frontal lobe: those involved in moving head: frontal eye fields and presupplementary motor area - reflect potential planning of motor movements that would required if imagined task were real - evident: patients with dorsolateral prefrontal lesion: most impaired when working memory was required to guide motor responses Temporal Lobes - ventral steam from occipital to temporal lobe - important for spatial ability - studies: spatial localization tasks = also shown increase in temporal lobe = role of ventral stream - activation attributed to fact ventral stream and temporal lobe play role in naming of objects - temporal lobes (hippocampal formation involved in tasks required spatial learning Hippocampal formation - plays role in tasks of explicit memory - located within temporal lobes includes: dentate gyrus, specific areas of hippocampus itself, and subiculum - hippocampus get info from entorhinal cortex -> gets input from cortical association areas - hippocampus integrates info from cortical + sub cortical areas - hippocampus: processing memory for places (how to get to your home) - damage to hippocampal formation: can’t form new memories but memories of places stored before damage are unaffected - studies with rats: rats with hippocampal lesions can’t remember important lesions - people hippocampal lesion = great difficulty utilizing spatial info to produce memory about location - O’Keef: place cells; cells in hippocampus respond to precise locations and other cells respond to other locations - cells respond preferentionally to spatial locations and may that cells form basis of hippocampus to form memories about space - if rat in unknown place, no cells will fire ------------------------------------- - position: those that are made with movements using body as referent - do not need any cues external to body and relatively automatic - cued responses: types of movements guided by cue - example: as face approaches book, image on retina increases and depending on speed with which image grows guides your movement and stops before nose touches page - cued responses guided by changes in how we perceive stimulus - cued responses rely on perception that is EXTERNAL to your body - Place responses: responses you make toward particular location or object - example: point at nearest store but you cannot see store while reading book - features: can be made when stimulus not currently present - feature: they tend to be relational ( nearest store not just any store = to do this accurately you have to compaute present location and determine which store is closest) How is body used? - only need info, differentiate among with respect to how your body is used - position responses need only info about your body, cue responses need info compare body with another object, place responses use knowledge you gained about environment - intrapersonal space: space immediately around body (including you body) - extrapersonal space: space more than 5 feet from you Personal Representation of Space - EXAMPLE: reach pen, brain computed distance between hand and location of pen - and shape of hand so you are able to grasp pen - computations that your brain performed relied info from intapersonal space - space within arm’s reach of body - dorsal stream with activity of parietal and frontal lobes, performs controlling movements directed at personal space Intrapersonal Space - position responses: need monitoring space with respect to body position - Alecto Test: test of spatial ability relies on intrapersonal space - person seated at chair in room (with table, window, door) and blindfolded - asked to walk around while blindfolded - chairs and desk moved around without participant’s knowledge - blindfold removed asked to return to his original position - position location: participant used info from their body while participant was navigating blindly - person went right 3 steps, position response go left - postion response: made only by monitoring info participant received from body Extrapersonal
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