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Behavior is Determined by Multiple Factors III.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Ashley W.Denton

Behavior is Determined by Multiple Factors III Chapter 12: Social Psychology (Pages 544 ­ 547) • Nonverbal behavior: facial expressions, gestures, mannerisms & movements • Impression formation is affected by expectation, attitudes, appearance, verbal & nonverbal gestures • Facial expression: first thing we notice; eye contact • Body languages o Gait: how people walk; affective state • Attributions: casual explanations for why events or actions occur o Just world hypothesis: victims must have done something to justify what happened to them o Fritz Heider  Personal attribution (internal/dispositional): things within people [abilities, traits, moods]  Situational attribution (external): outside events [weather, accidents] • Stable vs unstable; controllable vs uncontrollable o Bias  Fundamental attribution error (correspondence bias): over-emphasize personal factors & underestimate situational factors • Actor/Observer discrepancy: most common in negative events • Eastern: holistic (see the whole), human behavior is the outcome of both personal & situational • Western Chapter 13: Personality (Pages 583­ 593) • Personality: characteristic thoughts, emotional responses & behaviors that are relatively stable over time & across circumstances o “ trait: a characteristic • GordonAllport: dynamic organization within an individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his/her characteristic behavior or thought • Freud: Psychodynamic theory à unconscious forces (instincts) influence behavior o Topographical model of mind  Conscious: aware  Pre-conscious: not currently aware but can be brought to awareness  Unconscious: can’t be easily retrieved • Freudian slip: unconscious info slips into the conscious part o Psychosexual stage: pursuit of libidinal urges  Erogenous zones: mouth, anus, genitals Mental process • Latency stage: libido suppressed à schoolwork & friendship • Genital stage: adolescence & adults • Could be stuck à fixated due to restriction or too much attention o Structural model  Id: unconscious, according to pleasure principles, impulsive  Superego: internalization of parental & societal standards of conduct; developed during phallic stage; rigid structure of mortality or conscience  Ego: tries to satisfy the wishes of the Id while being responsive to the dictates of superego; operates according to reality principles • Anna Freud: Id vs superego à defense mechanisms o Neo-freudians: mostly reject it due to emphasis on the sexual forces  Object relation theory: object of attachment is another person • Humanistic approaches to studying personality emphasize personal experience & belief systems o Self-actualization: fulfill potential for personal growth through greater self understanding o Carl Rogers: person-centered approach  Unconditional positive regard à fully functioning person o Positive psychology movement o S
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