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Chapter 2

PSYC62 - Chapter 2.docx

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Michelle Hilscher

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Chapter 2The Nervous SystemCells in the Nervous SystemNeuronsCells in the nervous system that receive and transmit information to other neuronsGlia cellsCells that support the function of neurons100 billion neurons but 10 times as many glial cellsNeuron Communication in the Nervous SystemDense communication networks in brain which support function of brain structures and facilitate communication between brain structuresHave basic characteristics membrane nucleus ribosomes ER and unique characteristics for cellular communicationo4 major componentssoma dendrites axon axon terminaloNucleusMembraneenclosed region containing DNAoPlasma membraneControl of material exchanges mediation of cellenvironment interactionsoERisolation modification transport of proteins and other substancesoMitochondrionAerobic energy metabolismSoma is body of neuroncontains nucleus which holds DNAsupport neurons basic physiological processesMany dendrites branch off from somaDendritesParts of a neuron that receive information from other neuronsoDendritic spines grow along length of dendritic branchesoMembranes of dendrites and dendritic spines contain receptors proteins that neurotransmitters can activateactivation causes changes in neuron functioningoReceptive areathe overall coverage of dendrites for a neuronthe more dendrites the more input it can receive AxonsPart of a neuron that sends neurotransmitters to other neuronsoUsually one axonbegins at axon hillock and ends with branches containing axon terminals axon collateralsoAxon terminal contains and releases neurotransmitters at postsynaptic terminal part of dendrite which contain receptors for neurotransmittersoSynaptic cleftspace between axon terminal and postsynaptic terminalSynapsecomponents that comprise a connection between two neurons that includes the axon terminal postsynaptic terminal and synaptic cleftInterneuronNeuron with the soma and axon found within the same structure Afferent neuron has axon going to another structureSensory neuronsNeurons that convey sensory information via axons to the CNSafferent neuronEfferent neuron has axon coming from a structureMotor neuronsNeurons that convey motor information via axons from the CNSefferent neuronThalamus routes sensory info to different parts of cerebral cortex has afferent neurons that send axons to thalamus and efferent neurons that send axons from thalamusGlial CellsFacilitating Nervous System FunctioningOligodendrocytesglia cells that produce a material around the axons of neurons called myelinfacilitates movement of electrical impulses down axonfound in CNSSchwann cells are found in PNSMotor dysregulation and paralysis of MS result from degeneration of myelin sheathsAstrocytesglia cells that play a role in the formation of the bloodbrain barrier facilitating neuronal function and responding to injuryoCapillaryastrocyteoEndothelial cells fit tightly togetheroAct at synapses during neurotransmission
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