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Chapter 5

psy100, Chapter5

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Dan Dolderman

Chapter 5SensationSensation Vs PerceptionSensation refers to how our sense organs respond and to detect external stimulus energy and how those responses are transmitted to the brain Perception refers to the brains further processing of these detected signals that ultimately results in an internal representation of stimuli and a conscious experience of a world Essentially sensation detects and perception processes and interprets Code StimuliThe way our sensory organs translate a stimuluss physical properties into neural impulses is called sensory coding Different features of the physical environment are coded by different pattern of neural impulses or transduction Transduction is the specific process by which sensory receptors produce neural impulses when they receive stimulation It is after transduction that the processed information get sent to the brain Quantitative factors of stimulants are indexed by the neural firing frequency Qualitative coding has different sensory receptors responding to different qualities of a stimulus In most sensory systems except the olfactory system receptor coarse code in which sensory qualities are coded by only a few receptors each of which responds to a broad range of stimuli Only by integration across the range of receptors do we compute the final precept PsychophysicsAbsolute ThresholdAbsolute threshold is the minimum intensity of stimulation that must occur before one can experience a sensation Generally if you can detect the sensation 50 of the time it is consider the threshold Difference ThresholdDifference threshold describes the minimum amount of change required in order to detect a difference between intensities of stimuli Webers Law states that the size of a just noticeable difference is based on a relative proportion of difference or percentage rather than a fixed amount of difference SignalDetection TheoryThe signal detection theory states that detecting a stimulus requires making a judgement about its presence or absence based on subjective interpretation of ambiguous information Response bias refers to a participants tendency to report detecting the stimulus o ambiguous trial Depending so the participant sometime much evidence is needed whereas other only need minimum evidence to make detect presentSensory AdaptationSensory adaptation refers to when an observers sensitivity to stimuli decreases over time Our sensory systems are tuned to detect change if the stimuli is unchanging it becomes less critical to keep responding to it Basic Sensory ProcessesGustatory TasteThe taste receptors are part of the taste buds which with their microvilli are located on the tongue mouth and throat inside structures called papillae The chemical of the stimulants are what the taste receptors are taste buds are detecting and transducting the impulse to the brain There are five major primary taste sensations sweet sour salty bitter and umami or savoury Taste relies heavily on the sense of smell Food seems bland without smellOur sensation of taste is also affected by texture and cultural influence Some supertasters determined by genetic can have six times as much taste buds and are much highly aware of flavours and textures
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