Chapter 15: Interests and Attitudes
1. The distinction between tests treated in this chapter and "personality" tests is quite common. However,
the distinction is not ironclad. The most important difference is in the purposes for use of the tests rather
than in the nature of the tests themselves.
Orientation to Career Interest Testing
2. There are two dominant names in this field and two primary approaches to test development
Strong and Kuder
3. The two dominant names in this field are Edward K. Strong Jr. and G. Fredric Kuder.
4. Strong's test appeared in 1927 and at that time Strong was the only one doing significant work on the
measurement of vocational interests.
5. Kuder split his interests between vocational interest measurement and test theory.
6. Vocational interest measures differ in two ways.
7. (1) the first difference relates to the origin of scales or scores on the tests. One approach uses an
empirical, criterion keying approach and Strong was the real pioneer for criterion keying as a method for
test development. The second approach to scale development aims to produce scales corresponding to
broad areas of interest. Kuder's original tests used this approach.
8. (2) A second difference in approach relates to use of absolute versus relative types of scores. The
difference arises from the response format used for items. In the "absolute" format, you could like all the
items or dislike all of them. In the "relative" format, you can prefer only one item and you must reject one
Uses of Career Interest Tests
9. Career interest inventories are widely used, especially in the field of counseling.
A Forewarning on Names
10. The tests names can be a bit confusing and this is particularly true for tests associated with the two
leading names in the field. Sometimes the test name changes from one edition of the test to another;
sometimes it does not.
11. Further complicating the matter is the fact that John Holland has both his own vocational interest test
and an interpretive scheme for vocational interests.
Holland Themes and RIASEC Codes
12. Holland developed a theory about vocational choice that has provided a popular method for reporting
career interest scores. According to this theory, career interests can be organized around six major themes
13. These can be depicted in a hexagon and placement of the themes relative to one another represents
their degree of relationship. Adjacent themes have moderately high correlation and diagonally opposite
themes have low correlations. RIASEC.
14. Specifically, we might report the two highest RIASEC codes for an individual.
Strong Interest Inventory
15. The SII is very widely used.
16. The new Strong contains 291 items in 6 categories.
17. You respond to a series of simple descriptors by marking your degree of liking for each item on a five
point response scale.
18. The SII takes 35-40 minutes to complete and is intended for high school and college students as well
19. The SII yields five types of scores. 20. The General Occupational Themes (GOTs) correspond to the Holland categories and they represent
very broad areas of interest.
21. The Basic Interest Scales (BISs) also represent general interest areas but are somewhat more narrowly
22. The Occupational Scores (OSs) are the traditional criterion-keying scales for various occupational
23. The Personal Style Scales encompass an odd mixture of five scores related to environmental
preferences and ways of relating to people and situations.
24. The Administrative Indexes provide information about whether the inventory was answered sincerely.
25. First there is the General Representative Sample (GRS) composed of 2250 cases and which served as
the basis for developing a standard score system with M=50 and SD=10. (GOT and BIS scales)
26. For the Occupational Scales, separate standard score systems were developed (M=50 and SD=10)
27. Several separate standard score systems are in operation and all percentile scales (for GOT, BIS and
OSs) are separate by gender.
28. All together, a host of different normative structures undergird the total array of Strong scores.
29. The Strong manual reports extensive reliability data for all scales except the Administrative indexes.
30. (1) it is apparent that career interests are remarkably stable (2) in the few instances in which reliability
data are only marginally acceptable the problem is almost invariably the brevity of the scale (3) we note
with chagrin the absence of reliability data for the Administrative Indexes.
31. There are two common methods for demonstrating the validity of a career interest measure and a host
of ancillary methods.
32. (1) to show that tests results differentiate between existing occupational groups in predictable
directions. (2) to show that scores are predictive of the occupation (or college major) that people
33. Among the widely used career interest inventories, the Strong clearly presents the most validity
information. The Strong manual also contains substantial information about correlations among the scales
34. A major problem for the Strong is that many of these studies were conducted with earlier versions of
Kuder Career Search (KCS)
35. The KCS consists of 60 forced-choice triads. There are 180 activities and in each triad, the examinee
marks the activity liked the most, next most and least.
36. Uses 2 types of scores and an innovative method of reporting.
37. The first type of score is a set of 10 Activity Preference Scales and are intended as relatively
homogenous scales representing major dimensions of interest-similar to the BISs.
38. The second type score is a set of six Career Clusters. These line up with the RIASEC codes.
39. The third method reporting involves matching the person completing the KCS with a number of
people already in the workforce who have similar profiles. The person gets a list of people with similar
profiles, along with descriptions of these people and their work activities.
40. The KCS manual provides surprisingly sparse reliability data.
Self-Directed Search (SDS)
41. The SDS may outrank the SII because it can be taken independent of a counselor.
42. The SDS manual emphasizes that the inventory is self-administered, self-scoring and self-interpreted
and it aims at simplicity.
43. Form R is the most widely used a