Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (170,000)
UTSG (10,000)
Chapter 4

RSM260H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Baby Boomers, Small Power, Millennials


Department
Rotman Commerce
Course Code
RSM260H1
Professor
Katherine A.De Celles
Chapter
4

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 12 pages of the document.
A"broad"tendency"to"prefer"certain"states"of"affairs"over"others."
Values
∵"they"signal"the"attractive"aspects"of"our"environment"that"we"seek"
and"the"unattractive"aspects"that"we"try"to"avoid"or"change."
They"also"signal"how"we"believe"we"should"and"should"not"behave
Values"are"motivational"
broad&tendency:&values"are"very"general"and"that"they"do"not"predict"
behaviour"in"specific"situations"very"well."
Different"people"have"different"values
WHAT"ARE"VALUES?"
Respectful"to"authority,"high"work"ethic
Traditionalists
Experience:"vibrant"economy
optimistic"workaholics
Baby"boomers
Experience:"dual-career"families
Cynical,"confident,"and"pragmatic
Generation"X
Experience:"dual-career"families,"more"divorce"
confident,"social,"demanding"of"feedback,"and"somewhat"unfocused
Generation"Y
more"accepting"of"diversity"
striving"for"good"worklife"balance
comfort"with"technology
Value"money"status,"and"rapid"career"growth"than"are"Boomers
positive"self-esteem"&"narcissism" movement"to"later"generations
Gen."X"&"Y
more"similarities" than"differences"in"values"across"generations
For"older"employees:"this"means"being"deferred"to,"
§
for"Gen"X"and"Y:"it"means"being"listened"to
§
E.g."most"people"value"respect,"
All"work"generations" share"the"same"values"but"express" them"differently."
I.e."reduced"chances"of"quitting
§
∵"personorganization"Value"fit""positive"work"attitudes"and"
behaviours
⇒"organizations"may"have"to"tailor"job"designs,"leadership"styles,"
and"benefits"
Any"generational"differences"in"work"values"or"in"the"way"values"are"
expressed" is"important
Generational"Differences"in"Values
Business" is"hard"to"adjust"to"the"culture
Work"itself"is"valued"differently"across"cultures
High"work"centrality:"Japan
Average"work"centrality:"Belgians"and"Americans"
Low"work"centrality:"British"
WORK"CENTRALITY"
questioned"IBM"employees"located"in"40"countries"about"their"
work-related"values
The"extent"to"which"an"unequal"distribution"of"power"is"
accepted"by"society"members."
inequality"is"minimized,"superiors"are"accessible,"
and"power"differences"are"downplayed
®
E.g."Canada"and"U.S.
®
Small"power"distance"cultures:"
inequality"is"accepted"as"natural,"superiors" are"
inaccessible,"and"power"differences"are"highlighted
®
Large"power"distance"cultures:"
power"distance
§
The"extent"to"which"people"are"uncomfortable"with"
uncertain"and"ambiguous"situations
stress"rules"and"regulations,"hard"work,"
conformity,"and"security
®
Strong:"
Less"concerns"to"those"values"
®
E.g."Canada"and"the"U.S.
®
Weak:
uncertainty"avoidance
§
differentiate"gender"roles,"
®
support"the"dominance"of"men,"and"stress"
economic"performance
®
More"masculine"cultures
accept"fluid"gender"roles,"stress"sexual"equality,"
and"stress"quality"of"life."
®
More"More"feminine"cultures
Canada"is"in"the"middle
U.S."is"masculine
masculinity/femininity
§
societies"stress" independence,"individual"initiative,"
and"privacy."
®
Individualistic:
cultures"favour"interdependence"and"loyalty"to"
family"or"clan
®
Collective:"
E.g."U.S.,"Canada
individualism/collectivism
§
stress"persistence,"perseverance,"thrift,"and"close"
attention"to"status"differences
®
This"explains"prolific"East"Asian"entrepreneurship
®
long-term"orientation
stress"personal"steadiness" and"stability,"face-
saving,"and"social"niceties
®
E.g."Canada"and"U.S.
®
short-term"orientation
Long-term/short-term"orientation
§
profiles"for"Canada"and"the"United"States"are"very"
similar,"but"they"differ"considerably"from"that"of"Mexico
Cultures"that"are"more"individualistic"tend"to"downplay"
power"differences,"
those"that"are"more"collectivistic"tend"to"accentuate"
power"differences.
Hofstede’s"value"dimensions
§
Four"basic"dimensions" along"which"work-related"values"differed"
across"cultures
The"extent"to"which"cultures"differ"in"values.
§
greater"cultural"distance"impedes"communication
§
leaders"with"more"global"work"experience"had"more"strategic"
competence,"especially"when"they"had"been"posted"to"more"
distant"cultures
§
Cultural"distance
HOFSTEDE’S"STUDY
Cultural"Differences"in"Values"
organizational"behaviour"theories,"research,"and"practices"from"
North"America"might"not"translate" well"to"other"societies
E.g."in"high"power"distance"cultures,"people"will"be"more"likely"to"
defer"the"boss’"division"rather"than"listening" to"others"
EXPORTING"OB"THEORIES"
OB"theories"may"not"fit"in"North"American"culture"
E.g."Japanese"management"techniques
IMPORTING"OB"THEORIES"
An"appreciation"of"cross-cultural"differences"in"values"is"essential"to"
understanding" the"needs" and"tastes" of"customers"or"clients"around"
the"world
E.g."marketing"in"different"cultures"
APPRECIATING"GLOBAL"CUSTOMERS
to"have"a"much"better"appreciation"of"differences"in"cultural"values"
and"the"implications"of"these"differences"for"behaviour"in"
organizations
The"capability"to"function"and"manage"well"in"culturally"
diverse"environments
§
This"is"the"goal"to"develop"global"employees"
§
Cultural"intelligence
DEVELOPING"GLOBAL"EMPLOYEES
Implications"of"Cultural"Variation"
Attitude""Behaviour"
§
A"fairly"stable"evaluative"tendency"to"respond"consistently"to"some"
specific"object,"situation,"person,"or"category"of"people."
Attitude
E.g."you"could"value"working"quite"highly"but"still"dislike"your"
specific"job."
Attitudes"are"also"much"more"specific"than"values,"which"dictate"only"
broad"preferences."
BELIEF"+"VALUE"⇒""Attitude""Behaviour
I"dislike"anything"that"hurts"my"family.”(Value)"
§
“I"dislike"my"job.”"(Attitude)
§
“I’ll"search"for"another"job.”"(Behaviour)"
§
E.g."“My"job"is"interfering"with"my"family"life.”"(Belief")
attitudes"are"the"product"of"a"related"belief"and"value
WHAT"ARE"ATTITUDES?"
A"collection"of"attitudes"that"workers"have"about"their"jobs."
Job"satisfaction"
the"tendency"for"an"employee"to"be"more"or"less"satisfi"ed"with"
various"facets"of"the"job
§
E.g."I"love"my"work"but"hate"my"boss
§
facet"satisfaction
an"overall"or"summary"indicator"of"a"person’s"attitude"toward"
his"or"her"job"that"cuts"across"the"various"facets.
§
E.g."On"the"whole,"I"really"like"my"job,"although"a"couple"of"
aspects"could"stand"some"improvement
§
overall"satisfaction
Two"aspects"of"satisfaction
popular"measure"of"job"satisfaction
people,"pay,"supervision,"promotions,"and"the"work"itself."
§
to"evaluate"five"facets"of"satisfaction:"
Employees"are"asked"to"respond"“yes,”"“no,”"or"“?”"
Job"Descriptive"Index"("JDI)
respondents" indicate"how"happy"they"are"with"various"aspects"of"
their"job
the"competence"of"my"supervisor"in"making"decisions;"
§
the"way"my"job"provides"for"steady"employment
§
my"pay"and"the"amount"of"work"I"do."
§
Sample"questions
Minnesota"Satisfaction"Questionnaire"(MSQ)
WHAT"IS"JOB"SATISFACTION?"
E.g."one"of"the"nurses"might"perceive that"most"of"her"
working"time"is"devoted"to"direct"patient"care,"while"the"
other"might perceive that"most"of"her"time"is"spent"on"
administrative"functions."(They"both"want"to"do"patient"
care)
they"might"differ"in"their"perceptions"concerning"the"actual"
nature"of"the"job
§
E.g."the"nurse"who"value"direct"patient"care"higher"will"
be"more"satisfied,"given"that"they"are"both"going"patient"
care
People"differ"in"what"they"want"from"the"jobs
§
Two"facts"determine"
A"theory"that"job"satisfaction"stems" from"the"discrepancy"
between"the"job"outcomes"wanted"and"the"outcomes"that"are"
perceived"to"be"obtained."
§
Discrepancy"theory
Discrepancy
Fairness"that"occurs"when"people"receive"the"outcomes"
they"think"they"deserve"from"their"jobs
Distributive"fairness
§
A"theory"that"job"satisfaction"stems" from"a"comparison"
of"the"inputs"one"invests"in"a"job"and"the"outcomes"one"
receives"in"comparison"with"the"inputs"and"outcomes"of"
another"person"or"group."
When"the"ratio"is"incomparable
®
“short"end"of"the"stick”"situation"
Anything"that"people"give"up,"offer,"or"trade"to"
their"organization"in"exchange"for"outcomes.
®
Include:"factors"such"as"education,"seniority,"and"
high-quality"work.
®
Inputs
Factors"that"an"organization"distributes" to"
employees"in"exchange"for"their"inputs."
®
E.g."pay,"career"opportunities,"supervision
®
Outcomes
Equity"theory
§
DISTRIBUTIVE"FAIRNESS"
Fairness"that"occurs"when"the"process"used"to"determine"
work"outcomes"is"seen"as"reasonable
Procedural"fairness"
§
If"the"employee"receives"good"pay"raise,"dissatisfaction"
will"reduce
Procedural"fairness"is"especially"likely"to"provoke"
dissatisfaction"when"people"also"see"distributive"fairness"as"
being"low
§
PROCEDURAL"FAIRNESS
Fairness"that"occurs"when"people"feel"they"have"
received"respectful"and"informative"communication"
about"an"outcome."
Interactional"fairness
§
lower-level"managers" have"little"control"over"
procedures."However,"they"can"use"communicative"
fairness"to"offset"other"unfairness"
Prodedural"unfairness"and"interactional"unfairness
§
INTERACTIONAL"FAIRNESS
Fairness
Identical"twins"raised"apart"from"early"childhood"tend"to"have"
similar"levels"of"job"satisfaction."
§
Job"satisfaction"tends"to"be"fairly"stable"over"time,"even"when"
changes"in"employer"occur."
§
Disposition"measured"early"in"adolescence"is"correlated"with"
one’s"job"satisfaction"as"a"mature"adult.
§
Three"facts
genetics"
§
or"early"learning
§
some"personality"characteristics"originating"in
optimistic"and"proactive"report"higher"job"satisfaction.
§
Personalities"and"job"satisfaction
Disposition
Intense,"often"short-lived"feelings"caused"by"a"particular"event."
§
Emotions
Less"intense,"longer-lived,"and"more"diffuse"feelings."
§
Moods
jobs"actually"consist"of"a"series"of"events"and"happenings"that"
can"influence"emotions"or"moods,"depending"on"how"we"
appraise"these.
§
Affective"events"theory
moods"and"emotions"can"spread"between"people.
§
Emotional"contagion
Requirement"for"people"to"conform"to"display"certain"emotion"
or"mood"in"their"job"behaviour."
§
Pretend"to"be"positive
§
This"requirement"boosts"job"satisfaction"and"reduces"stress
§
Emotional"regulation."
tend"to"be"paid"more"
§
Jobs"with"high"cognitive"demands"and"high"in"emotional"labour"
demand
Is"not"paid"well
§
low"cognitive"demands"+"high"emotional"labour"
Mood"and"emotion
This"is"work"that"tests"employees"skills"and"abilities" and"
allows"them"to"set"their"own"working"pace."
§
perceive"such"work"as"personally"involving"and"
important
provides"the"worker"with"clear"feedback"
Advantage
§
Some"employees"don’t"like"this"type"of"work
Disadvantage
§
MENTALLY"CHALLENGING"WORK"
some"people"are"willing"to"accept"less" work"for"lower"
pay
However,"
§
ADEQUATE"COMPENSATION"
∵"signals"about"a"persons"self-worth
Opportunity"for"promotion
§
CAREER"OPPORTUNITIES
friendly,"considerate,"good-natured"superiors"and"co-workers"
contribute"to"job"satisfaction
§
friendliness"aspect"of"interpersonal"relationships"are"
important"in"lower-level"jobs"
∵"with"clear"duties"and"in"various"dead-end"jobs
Exception
§
PEOPLE
Some"Key"Contributors"to"Job"Satisfaction
WHAT"DETERMINES"JOB"SATISFACTION?"
less-satisfied"employees"are"more"likely"to"be"absent
E.g."illness"
Unavoidable
§
E.g."no"pay"for"absence"
related"to"economic"needs"than"to"dissatisfaction.
§
∵"no"guideline"about"absence"
Employees"look"at"their"peers
“absence"culture”"might"have"a"stronger"effect
§
Reasons"for"absence"
Absence"from"Work
resignation"from"an"organization
More"expensive"as"employees"move"to"higher"level
§
Expensive"for"a"company
hiring,"training,"and"developing"to"proficiency
§
Turnover"cost
less-satisfied"workers"being"more"likely"to"quit
§
circles"represent"attitudes
§
ovals"represent"elements"of"the"turnover"process
§
squares"denote"situational"factors
§
E.g."unsolicited"job"offer"in"an"attractive"location
“shocks,
§
Dissatisfaction"is"offset"by"a"strong"commitment"to"the"
organization.
§
be"so"embedded"in"the"community
§
limited"employment"alternatives
§
why"satisfied"people"sometimes"quit"their"jobs"or"dissatisfied"people"
stay
the"bad"facets"of"the"old"job"are"gone,"
§
the"good"facets"of"the"new"job"are"apparent,"
§
and"the"bad"facets"of"the"new"job"are"not"yet"known.
§
honeymoon"effect"
overall"satisfaction"with"the"new"job"decreases
§
hangover"effect"
Turnover"
E.g."engineering
§
the"connection"between"job"satisfaction"and"performance"is"
stronger"for"complex
people"doing"complex"jobs"have"more"control"over"their"
level"of"performance."
§
and"less"strong"for"more"routine"labour"jobs."
∵"lack"of"reward"
But"not"as"strong
§
performance"could"also"contribute"to"job"satisfaction
Performance"
Voluntary,"informal"behaviour"that"contributes"to"
organizational"effectiveness
§
Organizational"citizenship"behaviour"(OCB)
offering"assistance"to"others."
helping"behaviour,"
§
E.g."getting"in"on"the"snowiest"day"of"the"year"and"not"
wasting"organizational"resources."
Another"might"be"conscientiousness"to"the"details"of"work
§
E.g."not"everyone"can"have"the"best"parking"spot
being"a"good"sport"
§
E.g."assist"a"colleague"on"a"rush"job"and"delay"others
courtesy"and"cooperation
§
Forms"of"OCB
Fairness"is"the"key
§
organizational"productivity"and"efficiency"and"to"
reduced"turnover
OCB"contributes"to"
§
How"job"satisfaction"contribute"to"OCB"
§
Progression"of"withdrawal"
Organizational"Citizenship"Behaviour"
employee"job"satisfaction"is"translated"into"customer"or"client"
satisfaction"and"organizational"profitability
Customer"Satisfaction"and"Profit
CONSEQUENCES"OF"JOB"SATISFACTION"
An"attitude"that"reflects"the"strength"of"the"linkage"between"an"
employee"and"an"organization.
Organizational"commitment
Commitment"based"on"identification"and"involvement"with"an"
Organization
§
Stay"because"they"want to
high"commitment:"
§
interesting," satisfying"work"
Role"clarity"
Meet"employee’s"expectation
starting"employees"out"in"unchallenging" jobs"so"
they"do"not"make"any"serious"errors
®
Negative"impact:"
Key"contributor"
§
positively"related"to"performance"because"it"focuses"
attention"on"goals"and"thus"enhances"motivation
Consequences"of"Organizational"Commitment"
§
Affective"commitment"
Commitment"based"on"the"costs"that"would"be"incurred"in"
leaving"an"organization."
§
Stay"because"they"have to
Commitment"increase"as"time"goes"on
High"commitment:
§
“side"bets”"in"pension"funds,"obtaining"rapid"promotion,"
or"being"well"integrated"into"the"community"where"the"
firm"is"located
Key"contributor
§
negatively"related"to"performance,"something"you"might"
have"observed"in"dealing"with"bureaucrats.
Consequences"of"Organizational"Commitment"
§
Continuance"commitment"
Commitment"based"on"ideology"or"a"feeling"of"obligation"to"an"
organization."
§
Stay"because"they"think"they"should do
High"commitment:
§
tuition"reimbursements" or"special"training"that"
enhances"one’s"skills."
Strong"identification"with"an"organizations"product"or"
service
E.g."sports"coaches"often"haze"players"who"miss"
practice"to"stress"the"importance"of"loyalty"to"the"
team
®
Certain"socialization"practices"that"emphasizes" loyalty"to"
the"organization"
Key"contributor"
§
Normative"commitment
Three"different"types"of"organizational"commitment"
Cause"conflicts"between"family"life"and"work"life.
have"often"been"implicated"in"unethical"and"illegal"behaviour
high"levels"of"commitment"to"a"particular"form"or"style"of"
organization"can"cause"a"lack"of"innovation"and"lead"to"resistance"
when"a"change"in"the"culture"is"necessary
Downside"of"High"Organizational"Commitment"
Depending"on"the"nature"of"workplace"changes"and"how"they"
are"managed,"employees’"levels"of"aff"ective,"continuance,"and"
normative"commitment"can"increase"or"decrease
§
Changes" in"the"nature"of"employees’"commitment"to"the"
organization.
As"organizations"increase"in"size"following"mergers" and"
acquisitions,"
§
E.g."a"particular"division"
e.g. employees"are"likely"to"shift"their"commitment"to"smaller"
organizational"units
§
Changes" in"the"focus"of"employees’"commitment
Employers"want"the"variation"but"employees"dont
Organizations"size"variation"causes"conflicts
§
And"other"employee"groups"with"unimportant"
commitment"
®
e.g. an"organization"have"a"group"of"core"employees"with"
affective"organizational"commitment"
Solution"to"the"conflict:"different"relationships" with"employee"
groups
§
The"multiplicity"of"employeremployee"relationships"within"
organizations.
Changes" in"the"Workplace"and"Employee"Commitment"
WHAT"IS"ORGANIZATIONAL"COMMITMENT?"
Chapter"4
Sunday,*May*13,*2018
4:29*PM

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

A"broad"tendency"to"prefer"certain"states"of"affairs"over"others."
Values
∵"they"signal"the"attractive"aspects"of"our"environment"that"we"seek"
and"the"unattractive"aspects"that"we"try"to"avoid"or"change."
They"also"signal"how"we"believe"we"should"and"should"not"behave
Values"are"motivational"
broad&tendency:&values"are"very"general"and"that"they"do"not"predict"
behaviour"in"specific"situations"very"well."
Different"people"have"different"values
WHAT"ARE"VALUES?"
Experience:"two"wars
Respectful"to"authority,"high"work"ethic
Traditionalists
Experience:"vibrant"economy
optimistic"workaholics
Baby"boomers
Experience:"dual-career"families
Cynical,"confident,"and"pragmatic
Generation"X
Experience:"dual-career"families,"more"divorce"
confident,"social,"demanding"of"feedback,"and"somewhat"unfocused
Generation"Y
more"accepting"of"diversity"
striving"for"good"worklife"balance
comfort"with"technology
Value"money"status,"and"rapid"career"growth"than"are"Boomers
positive"self-esteem"&"narcissism" movement"to"later"generations
Gen."X"&"Y
more"similarities" than"differences"in"values"across"generations
For"older"employees:"this"means"being"deferred"to,"
§
for"Gen"X"and"Y:"it"means"being"listened"to
§
E.g."most"people"value"respect,"
All"work"generations" share"the"same"values"but"express" them"differently."
I.e."reduced"chances"of"quitting
§
∵"personorganization"Value"fit""positive"work"attitudes"and"
behaviours
⇒"organizations"may"have"to"tailor"job"designs,"leadership"styles,"
and"benefits"
Any"generational"differences"in"work"values"or"in"the"way"values"are"
expressed" is"important
Generational"Differences"in"Values
Business" is"hard"to"adjust"to"the"culture
Work"itself"is"valued"differently"across"cultures
High"work"centrality:"Japan
Average"work"centrality:"Belgians"and"Americans"
Low"work"centrality:"British"
WORK"CENTRALITY"
questioned"IBM"employees"located"in"40"countries"about"their"
work-related"values
The"extent"to"which"an"unequal"distribution"of"power"is"
accepted"by"society"members."
inequality"is"minimized,"superiors"are"accessible,"
and"power"differences"are"downplayed
®
E.g."Canada"and"U.S.
®
Small"power"distance"cultures:"
inequality"is"accepted"as"natural,"superiors" are"
inaccessible,"and"power"differences"are"highlighted
®
Large"power"distance"cultures:"
power"distance
§
The"extent"to"which"people"are"uncomfortable"with"
uncertain"and"ambiguous"situations
stress"rules"and"regulations,"hard"work,"
conformity,"and"security
®
Strong:"
Less"concerns"to"those"values"
®
E.g."Canada"and"the"U.S.
®
Weak:
uncertainty"avoidance
§
differentiate"gender"roles,"
®
support"the"dominance"of"men,"and"stress"
economic"performance
®
More"masculine"cultures
accept"fluid"gender"roles,"stress"sexual"equality,"
and"stress"quality"of"life."
®
More"More"feminine"cultures
Canada"is"in"the"middle
U.S."is"masculine
masculinity/femininity
§
societies"stress" independence,"individual"initiative,"
and"privacy."
®
Individualistic:
cultures"favour"interdependence"and"loyalty"to"
family"or"clan
®
Collective:"
E.g."U.S.,"Canada
individualism/collectivism
§
stress"persistence,"perseverance,"thrift,"and"close"
attention"to"status"differences
®
This"explains"prolific"East"Asian"entrepreneurship
®
long-term"orientation
stress"personal"steadiness" and"stability,"face-
saving,"and"social"niceties
®
E.g."Canada"and"U.S.
®
short-term"orientation
Long-term/short-term"orientation
§
profiles"for"Canada"and"the"United"States"are"very"
similar,"but"they"differ"considerably"from"that"of"Mexico
Cultures"that"are"more"individualistic"tend"to"downplay"
power"differences,"
those"that"are"more"collectivistic"tend"to"accentuate"
power"differences.
Hofstede’s"value"dimensions
§
Four"basic"dimensions" along"which"work-related"values"differed"
across"cultures
The"extent"to"which"cultures"differ"in"values.
§
greater"cultural"distance"impedes"communication
§
leaders"with"more"global"work"experience"had"more"strategic"
competence,"especially"when"they"had"been"posted"to"more"
distant"cultures
§
Cultural"distance
HOFSTEDE’S"STUDY
Cultural"Differences"in"Values"
organizational"behaviour"theories,"research,"and"practices"from"
North"America"might"not"translate" well"to"other"societies
E.g."in"high"power"distance"cultures,"people"will"be"more"likely"to"
defer"the"boss’"division"rather"than"listening" to"others"
EXPORTING"OB"THEORIES"
OB"theories"may"not"fit"in"North"American"culture"
E.g."Japanese"management"techniques
IMPORTING"OB"THEORIES"
An"appreciation"of"cross-cultural"differences"in"values"is"essential"to"
understanding" the"needs" and"tastes" of"customers"or"clients"around"
the"world
E.g."marketing"in"different"cultures"
APPRECIATING"GLOBAL"CUSTOMERS
to"have"a"much"better"appreciation"of"differences"in"cultural"values"
and"the"implications"of"these"differences"for"behaviour"in"
organizations
The"capability"to"function"and"manage"well"in"culturally"
diverse"environments
§
This"is"the"goal"to"develop"global"employees"
§
Cultural"intelligence
DEVELOPING"GLOBAL"EMPLOYEES
Implications"of"Cultural"Variation"
Attitude""Behaviour"
§
A"fairly"stable"evaluative"tendency"to"respond"consistently"to"some"
specific"object,"situation,"person,"or"category"of"people."
Attitude
E.g."you"could"value"working"quite"highly"but"still"dislike"your"
specific"job."
Attitudes"are"also"much"more"specific"than"values,"which"dictate"only"
broad"preferences."
BELIEF"+"VALUE"⇒""Attitude""Behaviour
I"dislike"anything"that"hurts"my"family.”(Value)"
§
“I"dislike"my"job.”"(Attitude)
§
“I’ll"search"for"another"job.”"(Behaviour)"
§
E.g."“My"job"is"interfering"with"my"family"life.”"(Belief")
attitudes"are"the"product"of"a"related"belief"and"value
WHAT"ARE"ATTITUDES?"
A"collection"of"attitudes"that"workers"have"about"their"jobs."
Job"satisfaction"
the"tendency"for"an"employee"to"be"more"or"less"satisfi"ed"with"
various"facets"of"the"job
§
E.g."I"love"my"work"but"hate"my"boss
§
facet"satisfaction
an"overall"or"summary"indicator"of"a"person’s"attitude"toward"
his"or"her"job"that"cuts"across"the"various"facets.
§
E.g."On"the"whole,"I"really"like"my"job,"although"a"couple"of"
aspects"could"stand"some"improvement
§
overall"satisfaction
Two"aspects"of"satisfaction
popular"measure"of"job"satisfaction
people,"pay,"supervision,"promotions,"and"the"work"itself."
§
to"evaluate"five"facets"of"satisfaction:"
Employees"are"asked"to"respond"“yes,”"“no,”"or"“?”"
Job"Descriptive"Index"("JDI)
respondents" indicate"how"happy"they"are"with"various"aspects"of"
their"job
the"competence"of"my"supervisor"in"making"decisions;"
§
the"way"my"job"provides"for"steady"employment
§
my"pay"and"the"amount"of"work"I"do."
§
Sample"questions
Minnesota"Satisfaction"Questionnaire"(MSQ)
WHAT"IS"JOB"SATISFACTION?"
E.g."one"of"the"nurses"might"perceive that"most"of"her"
working"time"is"devoted"to"direct"patient"care,"while"the"
other"might perceive that"most"of"her"time"is"spent"on"
administrative"functions."(They"both"want"to"do"patient"
care)
they"might"differ"in"their"perceptions"concerning"the"actual"
nature"of"the"job
§
E.g."the"nurse"who"value"direct"patient"care"higher"will"
be"more"satisfied,"given"that"they"are"both"going"patient"
care
People"differ"in"what"they"want"from"the"jobs
§
Two"facts"determine"
A"theory"that"job"satisfaction"stems" from"the"discrepancy"
between"the"job"outcomes"wanted"and"the"outcomes"that"are"
perceived"to"be"obtained."
§
Discrepancy"theory
Discrepancy
Fairness"that"occurs"when"people"receive"the"outcomes"
they"think"they"deserve"from"their"jobs
Distributive"fairness
§
A"theory"that"job"satisfaction"stems" from"a"comparison"
of"the"inputs"one"invests"in"a"job"and"the"outcomes"one"
receives"in"comparison"with"the"inputs"and"outcomes"of"
another"person"or"group."
When"the"ratio"is"incomparable
®
“short"end"of"the"stick”"situation"
Anything"that"people"give"up,"offer,"or"trade"to"
their"organization"in"exchange"for"outcomes.
®
Include:"factors"such"as"education,"seniority,"and"
high-quality"work.
®
Inputs
Factors"that"an"organization"distributes" to"
employees"in"exchange"for"their"inputs."
®
E.g."pay,"career"opportunities,"supervision
®
Outcomes
Equity"theory
§
DISTRIBUTIVE"FAIRNESS"
Fairness"that"occurs"when"the"process"used"to"determine"
work"outcomes"is"seen"as"reasonable
Procedural"fairness"
§
If"the"employee"receives"good"pay"raise,"dissatisfaction"
will"reduce
Procedural"fairness"is"especially"likely"to"provoke"
dissatisfaction"when"people"also"see"distributive"fairness"as"
being"low
§
PROCEDURAL"FAIRNESS
Fairness"that"occurs"when"people"feel"they"have"
received"respectful"and"informative"communication"
about"an"outcome."
Interactional"fairness
§
lower-level"managers" have"little"control"over"
procedures."However,"they"can"use"communicative"
fairness"to"offset"other"unfairness"
Prodedural"unfairness"and"interactional"unfairness
§
INTERACTIONAL"FAIRNESS
Fairness
Identical"twins"raised"apart"from"early"childhood"tend"to"have"
similar"levels"of"job"satisfaction."
§
Job"satisfaction"tends"to"be"fairly"stable"over"time,"even"when"
changes"in"employer"occur."
§
Disposition"measured"early"in"adolescence"is"correlated"with"
one’s"job"satisfaction"as"a"mature"adult.
§
Three"facts
genetics"
§
or"early"learning
§
some"personality"characteristics"originating"in
optimistic"and"proactive"report"higher"job"satisfaction.
§
Personalities"and"job"satisfaction
Disposition
Intense,"often"short-lived"feelings"caused"by"a"particular"event."
§
Emotions
Less"intense,"longer-lived,"and"more"diffuse"feelings."
§
Moods
jobs"actually"consist"of"a"series"of"events"and"happenings"that"
can"influence"emotions"or"moods,"depending"on"how"we"
appraise"these.
§
Affective"events"theory
moods"and"emotions"can"spread"between"people.
§
Emotional"contagion
Requirement"for"people"to"conform"to"display"certain"emotion"
or"mood"in"their"job"behaviour."
§
Pretend"to"be"positive
§
This"requirement"boosts"job"satisfaction"and"reduces"stress
§
Emotional"regulation."
tend"to"be"paid"more"
§
Jobs"with"high"cognitive"demands"and"high"in"emotional"labour"
demand
Is"not"paid"well
§
low"cognitive"demands"+"high"emotional"labour"
Mood"and"emotion
This"is"work"that"tests"employees"skills"and"abilities" and"
allows"them"to"set"their"own"working"pace."
§
perceive"such"work"as"personally"involving"and"
important
provides"the"worker"with"clear"feedback"
Advantage
§
Some"employees"don’t"like"this"type"of"work
Disadvantage
§
MENTALLY"CHALLENGING"WORK"
some"people"are"willing"to"accept"less" work"for"lower"
pay
However,"
§
ADEQUATE"COMPENSATION"
∵"signals"about"a"persons"self-worth
Opportunity"for"promotion
§
CAREER"OPPORTUNITIES
friendly,"considerate,"good-natured"superiors"and"co-workers"
contribute"to"job"satisfaction
§
friendliness"aspect"of"interpersonal"relationships"are"
important"in"lower-level"jobs"
∵"with"clear"duties"and"in"various"dead-end"jobs
Exception
§
PEOPLE
Some"Key"Contributors"to"Job"Satisfaction
WHAT"DETERMINES"JOB"SATISFACTION?"
less-satisfied"employees"are"more"likely"to"be"absent
E.g."illness"
Unavoidable
§
E.g."no"pay"for"absence"
related"to"economic"needs"than"to"dissatisfaction.
§
∵"no"guideline"about"absence"
Employees"look"at"their"peers
“absence"culture”"might"have"a"stronger"effect
§
Reasons"for"absence"
Absence"from"Work
resignation"from"an"organization
More"expensive"as"employees"move"to"higher"level
§
Expensive"for"a"company
hiring,"training,"and"developing"to"proficiency
§
Turnover"cost
less-satisfied"workers"being"more"likely"to"quit
§
circles"represent"attitudes
§
ovals"represent"elements"of"the"turnover"process
§
squares"denote"situational"factors
§
E.g."unsolicited"job"offer"in"an"attractive"location
“shocks,
§
Dissatisfaction"is"offset"by"a"strong"commitment"to"the"
organization.
§
be"so"embedded"in"the"community
§
limited"employment"alternatives
§
why"satisfied"people"sometimes"quit"their"jobs"or"dissatisfied"people"
stay
the"bad"facets"of"the"old"job"are"gone,"
§
the"good"facets"of"the"new"job"are"apparent,"
§
and"the"bad"facets"of"the"new"job"are"not"yet"known.
§
honeymoon"effect"
overall"satisfaction"with"the"new"job"decreases
§
hangover"effect"
Turnover"
E.g."engineering
§
the"connection"between"job"satisfaction"and"performance"is"
stronger"for"complex
people"doing"complex"jobs"have"more"control"over"their"
level"of"performance."
§
and"less"strong"for"more"routine"labour"jobs."
∵"lack"of"reward"
But"not"as"strong
§
performance"could"also"contribute"to"job"satisfaction
Performance"
Voluntary,"informal"behaviour"that"contributes"to"
organizational"effectiveness
§
Organizational"citizenship"behaviour"(OCB)
offering"assistance"to"others."
helping"behaviour,"
§
E.g."getting"in"on"the"snowiest"day"of"the"year"and"not"
wasting"organizational"resources."
Another"might"be"conscientiousness"to"the"details"of"work
§
E.g."not"everyone"can"have"the"best"parking"spot
being"a"good"sport"
§
E.g."assist"a"colleague"on"a"rush"job"and"delay"others
courtesy"and"cooperation
§
Forms"of"OCB
Fairness"is"the"key
§
organizational"productivity"and"efficiency"and"to"
reduced"turnover
OCB"contributes"to"
§
How"job"satisfaction"contribute"to"OCB"
§
Progression"of"withdrawal"
Organizational"Citizenship"Behaviour"
employee"job"satisfaction"is"translated"into"customer"or"client"
satisfaction"and"organizational"profitability
Customer"Satisfaction"and"Profit
CONSEQUENCES"OF"JOB"SATISFACTION"
An"attitude"that"reflects"the"strength"of"the"linkage"between"an"
employee"and"an"organization.
Organizational"commitment
Commitment"based"on"identification"and"involvement"with"an"
Organization
§
Stay"because"they"want to
high"commitment:"
§
interesting," satisfying"work"
Role"clarity"
Meet"employee’s"expectation
starting"employees"out"in"unchallenging" jobs"so"
they"do"not"make"any"serious"errors
®
Negative"impact:"
Key"contributor"
§
positively"related"to"performance"because"it"focuses"
attention"on"goals"and"thus"enhances"motivation
Consequences"of"Organizational"Commitment"
§
Affective"commitment"
Commitment"based"on"the"costs"that"would"be"incurred"in"
leaving"an"organization."
§
Stay"because"they"have to
Commitment"increase"as"time"goes"on
High"commitment:
§
“side"bets”"in"pension"funds,"obtaining"rapid"promotion,"
or"being"well"integrated"into"the"community"where"the"
firm"is"located
Key"contributor
§
negatively"related"to"performance,"something"you"might"
have"observed"in"dealing"with"bureaucrats.
Consequences"of"Organizational"Commitment"
§
Continuance"commitment"
Commitment"based"on"ideology"or"a"feeling"of"obligation"to"an"
organization."
§
Stay"because"they"think"they"should do
High"commitment:
§
tuition"reimbursements" or"special"training"that"
enhances"one’s"skills."
Strong"identification"with"an"organizations"product"or"
service
E.g."sports"coaches"often"haze"players"who"miss"
practice"to"stress"the"importance"of"loyalty"to"the"
team
®
Certain"socialization"practices"that"emphasizes" loyalty"to"
the"organization"
Key"contributor"
§
Normative"commitment
Three"different"types"of"organizational"commitment"
Cause"conflicts"between"family"life"and"work"life.
have"often"been"implicated"in"unethical"and"illegal"behaviour
high"levels"of"commitment"to"a"particular"form"or"style"of"
organization"can"cause"a"lack"of"innovation"and"lead"to"resistance"
when"a"change"in"the"culture"is"necessary
Downside"of"High"Organizational"Commitment"
Depending"on"the"nature"of"workplace"changes"and"how"they"
are"managed,"employees’"levels"of"aff"ective,"continuance,"and"
normative"commitment"can"increase"or"decrease
§
Changes" in"the"nature"of"employees’"commitment"to"the"
organization.
As"organizations"increase"in"size"following"mergers" and"
acquisitions,"
§
E.g."a"particular"division"
e.g. employees"are"likely"to"shift"their"commitment"to"smaller"
organizational"units
§
Changes" in"the"focus"of"employees’"commitment
Employers"want"the"variation"but"employees"dont
Organizations"size"variation"causes"conflicts
§
And"other"employee"groups"with"unimportant"
commitment"
®
e.g. an"organization"have"a"group"of"core"employees"with"
affective"organizational"commitment"
Solution"to"the"conflict:"different"relationships" with"employee"
groups
§
The"multiplicity"of"employeremployee"relationships"within"
organizations.
Changes" in"the"Workplace"and"Employee"Commitment"
WHAT"IS"ORGANIZATIONAL"COMMITMENT?"
Chapter"4
Sunday,*May*13,*2018 4:29*PM

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

A"broad"tendency"to"prefer"certain"states"of"affairs"over"others."
Values
∵"they"signal"the"attractive"aspects"of"our"environment"that"we"seek"
and"the"unattractive"aspects"that"we"try"to"avoid"or"change."
They"also"signal"how"we"believe"we"should"and"should"not"behave
Values"are"motivational"
broad&tendency:&values"are"very"general"and"that"they"do"not"predict"
behaviour"in"specific"situations"very"well."
Different"people"have"different"values
WHAT"ARE"VALUES?"
Experience:"two"wars
Respectful"to"authority,"high"work"ethic
Traditionalists
Experience:"vibrant"economy
optimistic"workaholics
Baby"boomers
Experience:"dual-career"families
Cynical,"confident,"and"pragmatic
Generation"X
Experience:"dual-career"families,"more"divorce"
confident,"social,"demanding"of"feedback,"and"somewhat"unfocused
Generation"Y
more"accepting"of"diversity"
striving"for"good"worklife"balance
comfort"with"technology
Value"money"status,"and"rapid"career"growth"than"are"Boomers
positive"self-esteem"&"narcissism" movement"to"later"generations
Gen."X"&"Y
more"similarities" than"differences"in"values"across"generations
For"older"employees:"this"means"being"deferred"to,"
§
for"Gen"X"and"Y:"it"means"being"listened"to
§
E.g."most"people"value"respect,"
All"work"generations" share"the"same"values"but"express" them"differently."
I.e."reduced"chances"of"quitting
§
∵"personorganization"Value"fit""positive"work"attitudes"and"
behaviours
⇒"organizations"may"have"to"tailor"job"designs,"leadership"styles,"
and"benefits"
Any"generational"differences"in"work"values"or"in"the"way"values"are"
expressed" is"important
Generational"Differences"in"Values
Business" is"hard"to"adjust"to"the"culture
Work"itself"is"valued"differently"across"cultures
High"work"centrality:"Japan
Average"work"centrality:"Belgians"and"Americans"
Low"work"centrality:"British"
WORK"CENTRALITY"
questioned"IBM"employees"located"in"40"countries"about"their"
work-related"values
The"extent"to"which"an"unequal"distribution"of"power"is"
accepted"by"society"members."
inequality"is"minimized,"superiors"are"accessible,"
and"power"differences"are"downplayed
®
E.g."Canada"and"U.S.
®
Small"power"distance"cultures:"
inequality"is"accepted"as"natural,"superiors" are"
inaccessible,"and"power"differences"are"highlighted
®
Large"power"distance"cultures:"
power"distance
§
The"extent"to"which"people"are"uncomfortable"with"
uncertain"and"ambiguous"situations
stress"rules"and"regulations,"hard"work,"
conformity,"and"security
®
Strong:"
Less"concerns"to"those"values"
®
E.g."Canada"and"the"U.S.
®
Weak:
uncertainty"avoidance
§
differentiate"gender"roles,"
®
support"the"dominance"of"men,"and"stress"
economic"performance
®
More"masculine"cultures
accept"fluid"gender"roles,"stress"sexual"equality,"
and"stress"quality"of"life."
®
More"More"feminine"cultures
Canada"is"in"the"middle
U.S."is"masculine
masculinity/femininity
§
societies"stress" independence,"individual"initiative,"
and"privacy."
®
Individualistic:
cultures"favour"interdependence"and"loyalty"to"
family"or"clan
®
Collective:"
E.g."U.S.,"Canada
individualism/collectivism
§
stress"persistence,"perseverance,"thrift,"and"close"
attention"to"status"differences
®
This"explains"prolific"East"Asian"entrepreneurship
®
long-term"orientation
stress"personal"steadiness" and"stability,"face-
saving,"and"social"niceties
®
E.g."Canada"and"U.S.
®
short-term"orientation
Long-term/short-term"orientation
§
profiles"for"Canada"and"the"United"States"are"very"
similar,"but"they"differ"considerably"from"that"of"Mexico
Cultures"that"are"more"individualistic"tend"to"downplay"
power"differences,"
those"that"are"more"collectivistic"tend"to"accentuate"
power"differences.
Hofstede’s"value"dimensions
§
Four"basic"dimensions" along"which"work-related"values"differed"
across"cultures
The"extent"to"which"cultures"differ"in"values.
§
greater"cultural"distance"impedes"communication
§
leaders"with"more"global"work"experience"had"more"strategic"
competence,"especially"when"they"had"been"posted"to"more"
distant"cultures
§
Cultural"distance
HOFSTEDE’S"STUDY
Cultural"Differences"in"Values"
organizational"behaviour"theories,"research,"and"practices"from"
North"America"might"not"translate" well"to"other"societies
E.g."in"high"power"distance"cultures,"people"will"be"more"likely"to"
defer"the"boss’"division"rather"than"listening" to"others"
EXPORTING"OB"THEORIES"
OB"theories"may"not"fit"in"North"American"culture"
E.g."Japanese"management"techniques
IMPORTING"OB"THEORIES"
An"appreciation"of"cross-cultural"differences"in"values"is"essential"to"
understanding" the"needs" and"tastes" of"customers"or"clients"around"
the"world
E.g."marketing"in"different"cultures"
APPRECIATING"GLOBAL"CUSTOMERS
to"have"a"much"better"appreciation"of"differences"in"cultural"values"
and"the"implications"of"these"differences"for"behaviour"in"
organizations
The"capability"to"function"and"manage"well"in"culturally"
diverse"environments
§
This"is"the"goal"to"develop"global"employees"
§
Cultural"intelligence
DEVELOPING"GLOBAL"EMPLOYEES
Implications"of"Cultural"Variation"
Attitude""Behaviour"
§
A"fairly"stable"evaluative"tendency"to"respond"consistently"to"some"
specific"object,"situation,"person,"or"category"of"people."
Attitude
E.g."you"could"value"working"quite"highly"but"still"dislike"your"
specific"job."
Attitudes"are"also"much"more"specific"than"values,"which"dictate"only"
broad"preferences."
BELIEF"+"VALUE"⇒""Attitude""Behaviour
I"dislike"anything"that"hurts"my"family.”(Value)"
§
“I"dislike"my"job.”"(Attitude)
§
“I’ll"search"for"another"job.”"(Behaviour)"
§
E.g."“My"job"is"interfering"with"my"family"life.”"(Belief")
attitudes"are"the"product"of"a"related"belief"and"value
WHAT"ARE"ATTITUDES?"
A"collection"of"attitudes"that"workers"have"about"their"jobs."
Job"satisfaction"
the"tendency"for"an"employee"to"be"more"or"less"satisfi"ed"with"
various"facets"of"the"job
§
E.g."I"love"my"work"but"hate"my"boss
§
facet"satisfaction
an"overall"or"summary"indicator"of"a"person’s"attitude"toward"
his"or"her"job"that"cuts"across"the"various"facets.
§
E.g."On"the"whole,"I"really"like"my"job,"although"a"couple"of"
aspects"could"stand"some"improvement
§
overall"satisfaction
Two"aspects"of"satisfaction
popular"measure"of"job"satisfaction
people,"pay,"supervision,"promotions,"and"the"work"itself."
§
to"evaluate"five"facets"of"satisfaction:"
Employees"are"asked"to"respond"“yes,”"“no,”"or"“?”"
Job"Descriptive"Index"("JDI)
respondents" indicate"how"happy"they"are"with"various"aspects"of"
their"job
the"competence"of"my"supervisor"in"making"decisions;"
§
the"way"my"job"provides"for"steady"employment
§
my"pay"and"the"amount"of"work"I"do."
§
Sample"questions
Minnesota"Satisfaction"Questionnaire"(MSQ)
WHAT"IS"JOB"SATISFACTION?"
E.g."one"of"the"nurses"might"perceive that"most"of"her"
working"time"is"devoted"to"direct"patient"care,"while"the"
other"might perceive that"most"of"her"time"is"spent"on"
administrative"functions."(They"both"want"to"do"patient"
care)
they"might"differ"in"their"perceptions"concerning"the"actual"
nature"of"the"job
§
E.g."the"nurse"who"value"direct"patient"care"higher"will"
be"more"satisfied,"given"that"they"are"both"going"patient"
care
People"differ"in"what"they"want"from"the"jobs
§
Two"facts"determine"
A"theory"that"job"satisfaction"stems" from"the"discrepancy"
between"the"job"outcomes"wanted"and"the"outcomes"that"are"
perceived"to"be"obtained."
§
Discrepancy"theory
Discrepancy
Fairness"that"occurs"when"people"receive"the"outcomes"
they"think"they"deserve"from"their"jobs
Distributive"fairness
§
A"theory"that"job"satisfaction"stems" from"a"comparison"
of"the"inputs"one"invests"in"a"job"and"the"outcomes"one"
receives"in"comparison"with"the"inputs"and"outcomes"of"
another"person"or"group."
When"the"ratio"is"incomparable
®
“short"end"of"the"stick”"situation"
Anything"that"people"give"up,"offer,"or"trade"to"
their"organization"in"exchange"for"outcomes.
®
Include:"factors"such"as"education,"seniority,"and"
high-quality"work.
®
Inputs
Factors"that"an"organization"distributes" to"
employees"in"exchange"for"their"inputs."
®
E.g."pay,"career"opportunities,"supervision
®
Outcomes
Equity"theory
§
DISTRIBUTIVE"FAIRNESS"
Fairness"that"occurs"when"the"process"used"to"determine"
work"outcomes"is"seen"as"reasonable
Procedural"fairness"
§
If"the"employee"receives"good"pay"raise,"dissatisfaction"
will"reduce
Procedural"fairness"is"especially"likely"to"provoke"
dissatisfaction"when"people"also"see"distributive"fairness"as"
being"low
§
PROCEDURAL"FAIRNESS
Fairness"that"occurs"when"people"feel"they"have"
received"respectful"and"informative"communication"
about"an"outcome."
Interactional"fairness
§
lower-level"managers" have"little"control"over"
procedures."However,"they"can"use"communicative"
fairness"to"offset"other"unfairness"
Prodedural"unfairness"and"interactional"unfairness
§
INTERACTIONAL"FAIRNESS
Fairness
Identical"twins"raised"apart"from"early"childhood"tend"to"have"
similar"levels"of"job"satisfaction."
§
Job"satisfaction"tends"to"be"fairly"stable"over"time,"even"when"
changes"in"employer"occur."
§
Disposition"measured"early"in"adolescence"is"correlated"with"
one’s"job"satisfaction"as"a"mature"adult.
§
Three"facts
genetics"
§
or"early"learning
§
some"personality"characteristics"originating"in
optimistic"and"proactive"report"higher"job"satisfaction.
§
Personalities"and"job"satisfaction
Disposition
Intense,"often"short-lived"feelings"caused"by"a"particular"event."
§
Emotions
Less"intense,"longer-lived,"and"more"diffuse"feelings."
§
Moods
jobs"actually"consist"of"a"series"of"events"and"happenings"that"
can"influence"emotions"or"moods,"depending"on"how"we"
appraise"these.
§
Affective"events"theory
moods"and"emotions"can"spread"between"people.
§
Emotional"contagion
Requirement"for"people"to"conform"to"display"certain"emotion"
or"mood"in"their"job"behaviour."
§
Pretend"to"be"positive
§
This"requirement"boosts"job"satisfaction"and"reduces"stress
§
Emotional"regulation."
tend"to"be"paid"more"
§
Jobs"with"high"cognitive"demands"and"high"in"emotional"labour"
demand
Is"not"paid"well
§
low"cognitive"demands"+"high"emotional"labour"
Mood"and"emotion
This"is"work"that"tests"employees"skills"and"abilities" and"
allows"them"to"set"their"own"working"pace."
§
perceive"such"work"as"personally"involving"and"
important
provides"the"worker"with"clear"feedback"
Advantage
§
Some"employees"don’t"like"this"type"of"work
Disadvantage
§
MENTALLY"CHALLENGING"WORK"
some"people"are"willing"to"accept"less" work"for"lower"
pay
However,"
§
ADEQUATE"COMPENSATION"
∵"signals"about"a"persons"self-worth
Opportunity"for"promotion
§
CAREER"OPPORTUNITIES
friendly,"considerate,"good-natured"superiors"and"co-workers"
contribute"to"job"satisfaction
§
friendliness"aspect"of"interpersonal"relationships"are"
important"in"lower-level"jobs"
∵"with"clear"duties"and"in"various"dead-end"jobs
Exception
§
PEOPLE
Some"Key"Contributors"to"Job"Satisfaction
WHAT"DETERMINES"JOB"SATISFACTION?"
less-satisfied"employees"are"more"likely"to"be"absent
E.g."illness"
Unavoidable
§
E.g."no"pay"for"absence"
related"to"economic"needs"than"to"dissatisfaction.
§
∵"no"guideline"about"absence"
Employees"look"at"their"peers
“absence"culture”"might"have"a"stronger"effect
§
Reasons"for"absence"
Absence"from"Work
resignation"from"an"organization
More"expensive"as"employees"move"to"higher"level
§
Expensive"for"a"company
hiring,"training,"and"developing"to"proficiency
§
Turnover"cost
less-satisfied"workers"being"more"likely"to"quit
§
circles"represent"attitudes
§
ovals"represent"elements"of"the"turnover"process
§
squares"denote"situational"factors
§
E.g."unsolicited"job"offer"in"an"attractive"location
“shocks,
§
Dissatisfaction"is"offset"by"a"strong"commitment"to"the"
organization.
§
be"so"embedded"in"the"community
§
limited"employment"alternatives
§
why"satisfied"people"sometimes"quit"their"jobs"or"dissatisfied"people"
stay
the"bad"facets"of"the"old"job"are"gone,"
§
the"good"facets"of"the"new"job"are"apparent,"
§
and"the"bad"facets"of"the"new"job"are"not"yet"known.
§
honeymoon"effect"
overall"satisfaction"with"the"new"job"decreases
§
hangover"effect"
Turnover"
E.g."engineering
§
the"connection"between"job"satisfaction"and"performance"is"
stronger"for"complex
people"doing"complex"jobs"have"more"control"over"their"
level"of"performance."
§
and"less"strong"for"more"routine"labour"jobs."
∵"lack"of"reward"
But"not"as"strong
§
performance"could"also"contribute"to"job"satisfaction
Performance"
Voluntary,"informal"behaviour"that"contributes"to"
organizational"effectiveness
§
Organizational"citizenship"behaviour"(OCB)
offering"assistance"to"others."
helping"behaviour,"
§
E.g."getting"in"on"the"snowiest"day"of"the"year"and"not"
wasting"organizational"resources."
Another"might"be"conscientiousness"to"the"details"of"work
§
E.g."not"everyone"can"have"the"best"parking"spot
being"a"good"sport"
§
E.g."assist"a"colleague"on"a"rush"job"and"delay"others
courtesy"and"cooperation
§
Forms"of"OCB
Fairness"is"the"key
§
organizational"productivity"and"efficiency"and"to"
reduced"turnover
OCB"contributes"to"
§
How"job"satisfaction"contribute"to"OCB"
§
Progression"of"withdrawal"
Organizational"Citizenship"Behaviour"
employee"job"satisfaction"is"translated"into"customer"or"client"
satisfaction"and"organizational"profitability
Customer"Satisfaction"and"Profit
CONSEQUENCES"OF"JOB"SATISFACTION"
An"attitude"that"reflects"the"strength"of"the"linkage"between"an"
employee"and"an"organization.
Organizational"commitment
Commitment"based"on"identification"and"involvement"with"an"
Organization
§
Stay"because"they"want to
high"commitment:"
§
interesting," satisfying"work"
Role"clarity"
Meet"employee’s"expectation
starting"employees"out"in"unchallenging" jobs"so"
they"do"not"make"any"serious"errors
®
Negative"impact:"
Key"contributor"
§
positively"related"to"performance"because"it"focuses"
attention"on"goals"and"thus"enhances"motivation
Consequences"of"Organizational"Commitment"
§
Affective"commitment"
Commitment"based"on"the"costs"that"would"be"incurred"in"
leaving"an"organization."
§
Stay"because"they"have to
Commitment"increase"as"time"goes"on
High"commitment:
§
“side"bets”"in"pension"funds,"obtaining"rapid"promotion,"
or"being"well"integrated"into"the"community"where"the"
firm"is"located
Key"contributor
§
negatively"related"to"performance,"something"you"might"
have"observed"in"dealing"with"bureaucrats.
Consequences"of"Organizational"Commitment"
§
Continuance"commitment"
Commitment"based"on"ideology"or"a"feeling"of"obligation"to"an"
organization."
§
Stay"because"they"think"they"should do
High"commitment:
§
tuition"reimbursements" or"special"training"that"
enhances"one’s"skills."
Strong"identification"with"an"organizations"product"or"
service
E.g."sports"coaches"often"haze"players"who"miss"
practice"to"stress"the"importance"of"loyalty"to"the"
team
®
Certain"socialization"practices"that"emphasizes" loyalty"to"
the"organization"
Key"contributor"
§
Normative"commitment
Three"different"types"of"organizational"commitment"
Cause"conflicts"between"family"life"and"work"life.
have"often"been"implicated"in"unethical"and"illegal"behaviour
high"levels"of"commitment"to"a"particular"form"or"style"of"
organization"can"cause"a"lack"of"innovation"and"lead"to"resistance"
when"a"change"in"the"culture"is"necessary
Downside"of"High"Organizational"Commitment"
Depending"on"the"nature"of"workplace"changes"and"how"they"
are"managed,"employees’"levels"of"aff"ective,"continuance,"and"
normative"commitment"can"increase"or"decrease
§
Changes" in"the"nature"of"employees’"commitment"to"the"
organization.
As"organizations"increase"in"size"following"mergers" and"
acquisitions,"
§
E.g."a"particular"division"
e.g. employees"are"likely"to"shift"their"commitment"to"smaller"
organizational"units
§
Changes" in"the"focus"of"employees’"commitment
Employers"want"the"variation"but"employees"dont
Organizations"size"variation"causes"conflicts
§
And"other"employee"groups"with"unimportant"
commitment"
®
e.g. an"organization"have"a"group"of"core"employees"with"
affective"organizational"commitment"
Solution"to"the"conflict:"different"relationships" with"employee"
groups
§
The"multiplicity"of"employeremployee"relationships"within"
organizations.
Changes" in"the"Workplace"and"Employee"Commitment"
WHAT"IS"ORGANIZATIONAL"COMMITMENT?"
Chapter"4
Sunday,*May*13,*2018 4:29*PM
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version