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Chapter 14

social problems chapter 14 notes

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Chapter 14 Populations, Cities and Neighbourhoods Introduction - Julian Simon believed that human beings are the ultimate resource o direct rebuff to Malthusian perspective o would argue that, to solve the problems associated with population growth, we may not need fewer people, but, instead, better-equipped and better-educated people and not a suspicion of technology, but instead a commitment to using technology for the good of humanity World Population in Context - history of the worlds population unfolded in 2 general stages th o extended period of slow growth from when the first humans appeared until the mid 18 century o brief period of explosive growth after 1750 - estimated by the UN: worlds population reached 6.5 billion in 2005 - worldwide growth rates peaked in the 1970s and have been decline for several years now - developing countries will account for the majority of the population increase o developed countries like Canada are experiencing zero or even negative growth The Demographic Transition - demographic transition - refers to a shift in demographic patterns from high birth rates and death rates to low birth and death rates - Stage 1 society is in its pre-modern stage o number of births and deaths are both high but equal o result: steady population size with only minimal growth - Stage 2 population enters the early stages of urbanization and industrialization o socio-economic advances result in lower death rates while birth rates remain high o result: explosive population growth - Stage 3 birth rates begin to fall, slowly reaching levels comparable to the death rate o result: population continues to grow but the rate of increase slows down - Stage 4 post-industrial phase of development o population is once again stable Contrasting Perspectives on Population Change The Malthusian Perspective - this natural decline in population was not foreseen in fact, for much of the 19 and 20h centuries, a continued population explosion was feared - Malthus believed there was a risk of the population (growing exponentially) was at risk for outgrowing the food supply (additive) www.notesolution.com
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