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Chapter 14

social problems chapter 14 notes

6 Pages
96 Views
Winter 2011

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC102H1
Professor
Teppermann
Chapter
14

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Chapter 14
Populations, Cities and Neighbourhoods
Introduction
-Julian Simon believed that human beings are the ultimate resource”
odirect rebuff to Malthusian perspective
owould argue that, to solve the problems associated with population growth, we may not
need fewer people, but, instead, better-equipped and better-educated people
and not a suspicion of technology, but instead a commitment to using technology
for the good of humanity
World Population in Context
-history of the worlds population unfolded in 2 general stages
oextended period of slow growth from when the first humans appeared until the mid 18th
century
obrief period of explosive growth after 1750
-estimated by the UN: worlds population reached 6.5 billion in 2005
-worldwide growth rates peaked in the 1970s and have been decline for several years now
-developing countries will account for the majority of the population increase
odeveloped countries like Canada are experiencing zero or even negative growth
The Demographic Transition
-demographic transition - refers to a shift in demographic patterns from high birth rates and
death rates to low birth and death rates
-Stage 1 society is in its pre-modern stage
onumber of births and deaths are both high but equal
oresult: steady population size with only minimal growth
-Stage 2 population enters the early stages of urbanization and industrialization
osocio-economic advances result in lower death rates while birth rates remain high
oresult: explosive population growth
-Stage 3 birth rates begin to fall, slowly reaching levels comparable to the death rate
oresult: population continues to grow but the rate of increase slows down
-Stage 4 post-industrial phase of development
opopulation is once again stable
Contrasting Perspectives on Population Change
The Malthusian Perspective
-this natural decline in population was not foreseen in fact, for much of the 19th and 20th
centuries, a continued population explosion was feared
-Malthus believed there was a risk of the population (growing exponentially) was at risk for
outgrowing the food supply (additive)
www.notesolution.com
ofor that reason, checks or limits are needed to keep population growth in line with growth
in the food supply
-two types
opositive checks prevent overpopulation by increasing the death rate
ex. war, famine, pestilence, disease
opreventative checksprevent overpopulation by limiting the number or survival of live
births
ex. abortion, infanticide, sexual abstinence, delayed marriage and contraceptive
use
Criticisms of the Malthusian Perspective
-it is far from certain that the planets carrying capacity will be strained by population growth
-also far from certain that population pressures will cause wars
-some note that Malthus is wrong in assuming that the food supplies can increase only
arithmetically
Population Density
-population density the number of people who live within a geographic area, usually expressed
as people per square mile or square kilometre
-all of human history – but especially in the past 300 yearshas tended toward increased
population density
ofinite, fixed size of the earth
ogrowth of urbanization movement of people from sparse rural settings to concentrated
urban settings
-population density arises in 2 main ways
ohigh fertility combined with low mortality
omigration of people
-with growing population density, there is a pressure towards innovation
Urban Sociology: A Primer
-UN Development Program international survey
onumber one problem in the world today is unemployment
othen insufficient solid-waste disposal
othen poverty
Contrasting Images of Urban Life
-Ferdinand Tonnies
ogemeinschaft social situations in which those involved treat one another as an ends
rather than as means; primary relationships based on sentiment, found most often in rural
life
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 14 Populations, Cities and Neighbourhoods Introduction - Julian Simon believed that human beings are the ultimate resource o direct rebuff to Malthusian perspective o would argue that, to solve the problems associated with population growth, we may not need fewer people, but, instead, better-equipped and better-educated people and not a suspicion of technology, but instead a commitment to using technology for the good of humanity World Population in Context - history of the worlds population unfolded in 2 general stages th o extended period of slow growth from when the first humans appeared until the mid 18 century o brief period of explosive growth after 1750 - estimated by the UN: worlds population reached 6.5 billion in 2005 - worldwide growth rates peaked in the 1970s and have been decline for several years now - developing countries will account for the majority of the population increase o developed countries like Canada are experiencing zero or even negative growth The Demographic Transition - demographic transition - refers to a shift in demographic patterns from high birth rates and death rates to low birth and death rates - Stage 1 society is in its pre-modern stage o number of births and deaths are both high but equal o result: steady population size with only minimal growth - Stage 2 population enters the early stages of urbanization and industrialization o socio-economic advances result in lower death rates while birth rates remain high o result: explosive population growth - Stage 3 birth rates begin to fall, slowly reaching levels comparable to the death rate o result: population continues to grow but the rate of increase slows down - Stage 4 post-industrial phase of development o population is once again stable Contrasting Perspectives on Population Change The Malthusian Perspective - this natural decline in population was not foreseen in fact, for much of the 19 and 20h centuries, a continued population explosion was feared - Malthus believed there was a risk of the population (growing exponentially) was at risk for outgrowing the food supply (additive) www.notesolution.com
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