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SOC246H1 (20)

Soc aging- Lecture march 7 .doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Markus Schafer

 Men have higher rate of partnership but drops off as age increase  compare to women the number of partnering women drops off right at the middle by 65  “” only 50% people are partnered  gendered related differences and sexual – read !!! on exam Lecture – march 7 2012 Work, employment and retirement main topics today  basic concepts and models describing aging employment and the life course  what are some of the challenges faced by older workers  retirement Basic concepts  employment vs. Work Compression of employment  employment is more compressed now  people were educated and relative short period of retirement (past)  expansion of education – getting higher degrees  retirement is getting younger – actualy period of employment is shorter  people are living longer but working shorter periods (exit labour force) 1950s (education) (employment) () employment ---> training/education  the problem of structural lag (matilda riley) - problem with institution they are not suited to the life course needs – a mismatch - e.g. University : haven't really solve a effective way to influence people that return for higher education - institution in the past does not help with the new cohorts that are developing - there is always a time lag III. Older workers in the modern labour market key question: what are some of the challenges that older workers* face?  important disclaimer: “ older worker” is a problematic term A. Labour market (macro economic) issues B. Attitudes and stereotypes about older adult's skills and employability A. labour market issues  Basic economic might suggest that the value of older workers is a matter of supply and demand. Fo instance how many younger workers are in the workforce?  Does his mean that we can simply project the demand for older workers by the number of younger people entering the labour force? - of course not. The number and type of jobs is always in flux, and people do not sort randomly into available jobs - due to cohorts  older workers tend to be disproportionately: - self employed types of jobs – not tide to firms - in fields that value experience - in declining industries  less often in : - growing industries share of worker 55 years and older 2006  declining industry  jobs require a lot of wisdom and experiences  Is this an effect of “aging”, per se? -- mostly no : a) labour market dynamics- what jobs are available and demand and when people initially enter the labour force b) cohorts − explains why older workers lose a job and harder to reenter the labour force compare to younger workers B. Attitudes and stereotypes about older adult's skills and employability  issues of age discrimination – hard to document if people are treated differently due to age but there is alot of evidence – affects their ability to work and their success  Age discrimination : very hard to accurately document - force retirement – a form of age discrimination in US and Canada - (a) hiring b) promotion and compensation c) discipline and d) training between otherwise equivalent workers who differ in age - subjective evaluations of workers by mangers/human resource personnel -( experience is valuable , to have loyalty ) - there are also bias – managers are usually older than employees - self-reports of differential treatment in the workplace Key question: are pessimistic assessment of older workers justified or reasonable ? − ethnic/ legal issue − productivity / performance issue Optimistic perspective on productivity/performance of older workers  so
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