Chapter 6 Orienting and Training Employees for High Performance
Employee Orientation A procedure for providing new employees with information about the
company and its industry, and the job.
Purposes include: better job performance, reduced turnover, less disciplinary action,
fewer grievances, reduced # of workplace injuries.
Problems include: too much info in a short time, too many forms to fill out, little to no
orientation, HR info too broad, supervisory info too detailed.
Socialization The ongoing process of instilling in all employees the prevailing attitudes,
standards, values, and patterns of behavior that are expected by the organization.
Reality Shock A new employees realization that there are differences between his or her
personal expectations about the job and the realities of it.
Evaluation of Orientation Programs:
1. Employee Reaction
2. Socialization Effects
3. Cost/Benefit Analysis
4. Employee Evaluation
Training The process by which organizations equip employees with the knowledge, skills, and
abilities to perform their current jobs according to organizational standards.
Development A long-term initiative, such as mentoring, leadership development, or job
rotation, designed to prepare employees for future jobs within the organization.
Negligent Training Occurs when an employer fails to train adequately and an employee
subsequently harms a third party.
- Precautions Include:
o Confirming claims of skill/experience for all applicants
o Reducing the risks of harm by extensively training employees working with
o Ensuring that training includes procedures to protect third parties health/safety
o Evaluating the training activity to determine its effectiveness in reducing
The Five-Step Training Process
1. Needs Analysis determine training needs
2. Instructional Design prepare training curriculum
3. Implementation and Delivery of Training
4. Transfer of Learning
5. Evaluation and Follow-Up
Step 1 Needs Analysis: Organization Analysis An assessment of an entire organization that investigates the strategies,
resources, and support systems it has in place for training.
Task Analysis A detailed study of a job to identify the skills and competencies it requires, so
that an appropriate training program may be designed.
Performance Analysis For existing employees appraise performance and distinguish between
what they cant and wont do.
Person Analysis Identifies which employees require training and what specific training they
require to reach organizational expectations.
Deficiency of Knowledge Lack of skills, knowledge, and abilities to do a job according to
company standards, which can be solved by training.
Deficiency of Execution Lack of interest or motivation to work to standard, which can be
solved by non-training interventions such as reward systems and job redesign.
Succession Planning Process by which senior level openings are planned for and eventually
Stages include org projection, management-skills inventories, management replacement
Step 2 Instructional Design:
On-the-Job Training (OJT) Learning a job while performing it. Can involve coaching,
understudies, job rotation (moving from job to job at planned intervals), or special assignments
(giving first-hand experience in working on actual problems)
Apprenticeship Training Structured process by which individuals become skilled workers
through a combo of classroom instruction and on-the-job training.
Job Instruction Training (JIT) Listing of each jobs basic tasks, along with key points, in order
to provide step-by-step training for employees.
Programmed Learning A systematic method involving presenting questions or facts, allowing
the person to respond, and giving the learner immediate feedback on the accuracy of his/her
Vestibule/Simulated Training Training employees on special off-the-job equipment, as in
airplane pilot training, so that training costs and hazards can be reduced.
E-Learning Delivery/administration of learning opportunities and support via computer
networked and web-based technology to help individual performance and development.
Virtual Reality Use of advanced computer tech to create a realistic 3D image of a work environment that allows trainees to act/react as though it were real life.
Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) Computer-based job aids or sets of
computerized tools/displays that automate training, documentation, and phone support.
- Computer-Based Training (Multimedia Training through Internet/CDs)
- Online Training
On-the-Job Management Development Techniques:
Developmental Job Rotation A management-training technique that involves moving a trainee
from department to department to broaden his/her experiences; identifies that candidates
Coaching/Understudy Approach Trainee works directly with the person that he/she is to
Mentoring Focus on senior staff providing junior staff with career-development guidance and
support. Specifically in adapting to an organizational culture, preparing them for promotion,
managing office politics, and dealing with workplace conficts.
Action Learning A training technique by which management trainees are allowed to work full-
time analyzing and solving problems in other departments.
Off-the-Job Management Development Techniques
Case Study Method A trainee is presented with a written description of an organizational
problem to diagnose/solve.
Management Game - A computerized development technique in which teams of managers
compete with one another by making decisions regarding realistic but simulated companies.
Role-Playing A training technique in which trainees act out the parts of people in a realistic
Behaviour Modeling Trainees are first show good management techniques, and then asked to
play roles in a simulated situation, and finally given feedback regarding their performance.
1. Modeling Trainees watch videos that show how model employees behave
3. Social Reinforcement Trainer provides praise and constructive feedback
4. Transfer of Training - Trainees encouraged to apply new skills in their jobs
In-House Development Centers A company-based method for exposing prospective managers
to realistic exercises in order to develop improved management skills - Outside Seminars
- College/University Related Programs
1. Evaluate leadership competencies
2. Learning contract
3. Learning process
4. Re-entry planning
Leadership Development The process by which employees with leadership potential are
equipped with the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to serve as leaders within an
Succession Planning A process by which senior level openings are planned for and eventually
- First involves a organizational projection, then a management-skills inventory.
1. Evaluation of Leadership Competencies
2. The Learning Contract
3. The Learning Process
4. Re-Entry Planning
5. Measurement of Training Effectiveness
Step 3 Implementation and Delivery of Training
Step 4 Transfer of Learning
Relapse Prevention A follow-up session after training to check trainees progress in achieving
personal learning goals and to offer support if barriers stagnate the transfer of learning into
Step 5 Evaluation
Controlled Experimentation Formal methods for testing the effectiveness of a training
program, preferably with before-and-after tests and a control group.
Training Outcomes: (PG 201)
1. Reaction document immediate reactions
2. Learning use feedback devices to measure learning
3. Behavior note supervisory reactions to learners performance following training
4. Results measure improvement in learners job performance
Return on Investment (ROI) A formula for calculating the cost effectiveness of training to
determine if training benefits outweigh costs.