Apollodorus ACM, pp 33-45.docx

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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2200
Kendall Sharp

Classical Mythology 2200 Heracles November 25, 2013 K1 Heracles (2.4.8-2.7.7) • Zeus made himself look likeAmphitryon • He slept with Alcmene • Almene bore to sons, Heracles, the older by a day, to Zeus, and Iphicles to Amphitryon • When Heracles was eight months old, Hera sent two enormous serpents into his bed because she wanted to destroy him • Heracles killed bothAlcmeme andAmphitryon with his bare hands • Amphitryon was trying to figure out which of the boys was his son, so he put the serpents in the bed K2 Heracles’Youth • Heracles was taught to drive chariots byAmphitryon, to wrestle byAutolycos, to shoot a bow by Eurytos, to fight in armor by Castor, and to play the lyre by Linos • After Linos came to Thebe and became a Theban, he was slain by Heracles who hit him with his lyre (Heracles killed him in a fit of rage because Linos had struck him) • Afraid that Heracles would do that again,Amphitryon sent him to tend his herd of cattle • When Heracles was 18 years old, he killed the Cithaironian lion, which used to rush from Mouth Cithairon and ravage the cattle ofAphitryon • When Heracles wanted to kill the lion, he went to Thespios, king of Thespiai • Thespios had one of his daughters sleep with Heracles every night before a hunt because he was eager for all of them to have children with Heracles • The Thebans paid tribute to Erginos because:  One of Menoiceus’charioteers, named Perieres, hit Clymenos, king of the Miniyans, which a stone and wounded him in the precinct of Poseidon in Onchestos  Erginos made a treaty that the Thebans would send him a hundred cows as tribute each year for 20 years  Heracles mutilated the heralds  Erginos marched against Thebes  Heracles killed him and forced the Miniyans to pay double the tribute to the Thebans • Heracles received from Creon his oldest daughter Megara as a prize for bravery • He had three sons with her: Therimachos, Creontiades, and Deicoon • Heracles got a sword from Hermes, a bow fromApollo, a golden breastplate from Hephaistos, and a robe fromAthena • Heracles was driven made because of the jealousy of Hera • He threw his own children by Megara into a fire, along with two of Iphicles’sons • He condemned himself to exile • Pythia for the first time called him Heracles; up until then he had been called Alceides • She told him to accomplish ten labors imposed on him and said that when the labors were finished, he would become immortal K3 First Labor: The Nemean Lion • Heracles was commanded by Eurystheus to bring back the skin of the Nemean lion • If Heracles returned from the hund, he told Molorchos to make a sacrifice fit for a god to Zeus Soter (Savior); if he died, he told Molorchos to make a sacrifice fit for a god to Zeus Soter (Savior) • He first shot it with his bow, it didn't work so he tried with his club • He got it into a cave, cornered it and choked it to death • Terrified by Heracle’s demonstration of manly courage, Eurystheus forbade Heracles from entering the city in the future and ordered him to display his labors before the gates of the city K4 Second Labor: The Lernaian Hydra • His second labor was to kill the Lernaian Hydra, which had been raised in the swamp of Lerna • Nine heads, enormous body, eight of the heads were mortal and the one in the middle was immortal • Forced her to come out with flaming arrows • When one head was smashed with his club, two would grow back • Acrab came to assist the hydra and pinched his foot • He killed the crab and called Iolaos for help • Iolaos set fire to a portion of the nearby forest and with the burning pieces of wood he scorched the stumps of the heads preventing them from growing back • Heracles then cut the immortal one, buried it, and placed a heavy rock over it • He ripped the Hydra’s body and dipped his arrows in her bile • Eurystheus didn’t count this labor because Heracles had help K5 Third Labor: The Cerynitian Deer • His third task was to bring the Cerynitian Deer alive to Mycenae • The deer was sacred toArtemis • Heracles shot it with his bow and captured it • ButArtemis, withApollo, met up with him and was ready to take the deer away • She reproached him because he was killing her sacred animal, but he made the excuse that he was being forced to do it and said that Eurystheus was actually the one to blame K6 Fourth Labor: The Erymanthian Boar • Bring the Erymanthian Boar alive • Centaur Pholos offered Heracles meat that was roasted, but he himself ate his raw • When Heracles asked for wine, Pholos said that he was afraid to open the centaur’s communal storage jar • When he opened it, it caused the Centaurs to surround Cheiron so Heracles shot his arrows at the Centaurs • One of the arrows went through Elatos’arm and lodged in Cheiron’s knee • Heracles ran and tried to pull out the arrow, and applied a drug that Cheiron gave him • Cheiron left to return to his cave – he wanted to die there but was unable to do so because he was immortal • Prometheus offered himself to Zeus to become immortal in Cheiron’s place, and that is how Cheiron died • He chased the boar from a thicket by shouting, and when it was tired out, he forced it into deep snow, lassoed it, and brought it to Mycenae K7 Fifth Labor: The Cattle of Augeias • The fifth labor was to clear the dung out of the Cattle ofAugeias in only a single day • Heracles came to Augeias and, without revealing Eurystheus’command, told him that he would clear out the dung in a single day ifAugeias would give him one tenth of the cattle • Heracles made a hole in the foundation of the stable and diverted the rivers Alpheios and Peneios, which flowed near one another, and caused them to flow in after he made an outlet through another opening • Eurythesus didn’t count this labor among the ten either, because he said that it was done for payment K8 Sixth Labor: The Stymphalian Birds • The sixth labor was to chase away the Stymphalian birds • When Heracles was at a loss how to drive the birds from the woods,Athena got bronze castanets from Hephaistos and gave them to him • By rattling these, he startled the birds and flew off in flight • In this was Heracles shot them K9 Seventh Labor: The Cretan Bull • The seventh labor was to bring the Cretan Bull • This was the bull that carried Europa across the sea for Zeus, but some say it was the one sent forth from the sea by Poseidon when Minos said that he would sacrifice to Poseidon whatever appeared from the sea • Heracles caught it and carried it back and showed it to Eurystheus • Afterward, he let it go free and it wandered Sparta and all ofArcadia – it plagued the locals K10 Eighth Labor: The Mares of Diomedes • The eighth labor was to bring the Mares of Diomedes the Thracian to Mycenae • Diomedes was the son ofAres and Cyrene • He was the king of the Bistones • Heracles sailed with his willing followers, overpowered the men in charge of the mares’mangers, and drove them to sea • Heracles handed the mares over toAbderos to guard • The mares draggedAbderos to death – Heracles fought the Bistones • By killing Diomedes he forced the rest to flee • Eurystheus released them and when to the mountain called Olymbos, where they were destroyed by the beasts K11: Ninth Labor: The War-Belt of Hippolyte • The ninth labor was to bring the belt of Hippolyte • She was the queen of theAmazons • They constricted their right breasts so it wouldn’t interfere with throwing a javelin, but lowered their left breasts to grow so that they could breastfeed • Hippolyte had Ares’war-belt, a symbol of her preeminence over all theAmazons • Heracles killed the sons of Minos on the spot • Hippolyte came to Heracles and asked why he had come and promised to give him the war-belt • Hera made herself look like one of the amazons and went among the populace saying that the strangers who had come were abducting the queen • Heracles killed Hippolyter and took the war-belt, sailed away and landed at Troy • ForApollo and Poseidon, desiring to test the insolence of Laomeden, made themselves look like mortals and promised to build walls around Pergamon for a fee • But after they built the walls, Laomedon would not pay them and this resulted in Apollo sending a plague and Poseidon sending a sea monster • The oracle said that these misfortunes would end if Laomedon would sacrifice his daughter as food for the sea monster – he agreed and tied her to a cliff • When Heracles saw this he promised to save her if he would get from Laomedon the mares that Zeus had given as compensation for the kidnapping of Ganymedes • He agreed and Heracles killed the sea monster and saved Hesoine • Laomedon didn’t pay and Heracles set sail threatening that he would make war against Troy • He brought the war-belt to Mycenae and gave it to Eurysthe
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